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Presentation on theme: "Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm 1

2 In this session: What is culture? At level of society At level of organisation Beliefs, values and attitudes Where they come from and how they relate to behaviour Intercultural competence Being able to work within and across cultures in professional life Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

3 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm What is culture ? - your thoughts on this? In pairs or small groups, come up with a definition of culture. Hint: you might like to think about examples of things, such as dress, language, food, customs Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

4 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Can we come up with a shared definition of culture? Key Points are... Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

5 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Some elements of culture Language (including non-verbal cues) Stories, myths and legends, jokes Norms e.g. rituals, taboos, social etiquette Values (what is considered of worth) and ethics Religion Beliefs e.g. individualism or collectivism Roles and power distance Customs, festivals and celebrations Food Art Clothing Artefacts : physical things that have symbolic meanings attached e.g. flowers at a wedding Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

6 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Are there such things as ‘cultural universals’? Do you think the following features are shared by people in all human societies?  Ability to communicate verbally  Use of age and gender for classification e.g. woman, senior citizen  Marriage and kinship e.g. cousin, husband  Family relationships and child rearing  Art and music  Division of labour  Ethics Can you add any others to this list? Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

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10 A further complication: ‘Subcultures’ Complex societies consist of more than one culture – subcultures exist within dominant cultures Examples:  Economic or social class  Ethnicity e.g. tribal connections, African Americans  Geographic region  Age-related cohort e.g. ‘youth culture’ Can you add to this list? Are there ‘subcultures’ with which you or people you know identify? Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

11 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm 11 Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree Kogal ganguro mori anime

12 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Lewis culture model Follow link and click on multi media demonstration for six minute video presentation. 12 Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

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16 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Activity Form yourselves into small groups Each group will be given a card on which one of the elements of culture will be written Discuss amongst the group examples of cultural behaviours or attitudes related to your cultural element. These can be from your own or other cultures. We will share this discussion as a class Alternative Activity slide 31 Discuss examples of New Zealand cultural that you have noticed. Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

17 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm So why is culture significant?  Diversity  Identity  Points of difference  Development of attitudes  How we monitor standards and behaviour  Group membership  Strengthening and transmitting traditions through generations Any others? Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

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19 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Some things to consider Can culture change? Should culture change? What kinds of things might cause culture to change? ‘Culture shock’ – how would this feel? Are there difficulties with cultural adaptation? Are there benefits of culture sharing? Does any of this matter for business students? Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

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22 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Culture= ‘the way we do things around here’ What is your view of that definition? Does it fit with the ideas you have come up with? Here are some of the characteristics of culture: It’s based on what we have learned, i.e. it represents knowledge which is shared and accepted by members of the culture It’s about ways we have been taught to think and feel, and to react to and interpret what we experience It’s expressed through our understanding of the way things work, and how people behave in our culture (or subculture) It’s about who we identify with, and who we feel ‘comfortable’ with Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

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24 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm The importance of intercultural awareness and competence for business students Today’s world of business is increasingly globalised and connected, and business graduates need to: understand and value/respect cultural differences communicate easily across diverse cultures possess the range of skills and knowledge needed to operate globally recognise that these skills are also necessary in culturally-diverse NZ A useful place to start is through gaining an understanding of our own cultural practices Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

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26 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Intercultural competence The acquired ability to understand, communicate and adapt behaviours in a manner that promotes effective intercultural communication and interaction Intercultural competence involves: Sensitivity to cultural differences The ability to see things from multiple perspectives The ability to adapt behaviours and practices to function in other cultural frames Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

27 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm More on intercultural competence A dynamic, ongoing, interactive and self-reflective learning process. Related to culture, cross-cultural communication, meaning-making and language use, dealing with ‘otherness’ and difference. Transformational – confronts and challenges biases and beliefs. Involves self-reflexive communication and actions. (More than the learning of isolated facts about specific cultures) Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

28 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm What makes it hard to understand one’s own culture? Our own culture is ‘everything we know.’ Its.. based on what we have learned and been taught; how we understand the world, identify ourselves and recognise others like us How do we become aware that there are other ways of doing things? Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

29 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Ways to increase your intercultural knowledge and competence during your degree program Learn as much as you can by socialising with students from other cultures during your degree studies Use every opportunity you get during your degree to engage in group work with students from other cultures – this is a ‘safe’ way to find out about other business cultures and ways of doing things Participate in the cultural exchange and internship opportunities that are offered as part of your degree Have some fun: watch movies, read magazines, access the internet. Find out everything you can about other cultures – sample their food too, if that is available in your area! Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

30 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Culture on culture: clash or integrate What happens when cultures collide? Good Conflict such as fusion cuisine of the euro/pacific. Bad Conflict such as destruction and dehumanisation of Australian Aborigine people, recent USA military actions in Iraq. Neutral (?) Separatism in which the cultures exist in parallel in the same geo-societal location such as apartheid (extreme), Auckland Chinese (don’t integrate much). Integration in which a new culture emerges from a combination of one or more inputting cultures, such as Maori and Pakeha (hopefully). 30 Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

31 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm The New Zealand-Aotearoa Culture : Key Points 1. Don’t sit on desks, tables, etc

32 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm 32 Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree All slides so far have been about culture and society. In business we also use the word culture to describe how organisations work. Every organisation has a ’culture’ that is the ‘unwritten rules’ of the organisation.

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34 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm What use is organisational culture? A successful business has a successful culture. (all businesses in same industry have same resources etc, - so why is one more successful?) Culture can be a competitive advantage as it is hard to copy. (culture as core competency) 34 Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree

35 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm 35 Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree Competitive advantage frontier Threshold competencies (all industry members do this) Core competency (unique feature) Increasing Differentiation

36 Replace with slice from book cover – height = 1cm Organisation culture extremes : People vs task People (people first) Develop staff to fill roles Team culture common Collective decision making Soft HRM organisation non specialist career implicit control slow promotion long term employment Task (work first) Hire staff to fill roles Individual culture common Individual decision making Hard HRM organisation specialist career explicit control fast promotion short term contracts 36 Copyright ©2012 Pearson Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) – /McCulloch and Reid/Your Business Degree


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