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Fi8000 Option Valuation II Milind Shrikhande

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Valuation of Options ☺Arbitrage Restrictions on the Values of Options ☺Quantitative Pricing Models ☺Binomial model ☺A formula in the simple case ☺An algorithm in the general ☺Black-Scholes model (a formula)

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Binomial Option Pricing Model Assumptions: ☺ A single period ☺ Two dates: time t=0 and time t=1 (expiration) ☺ The future (time 1) stock price has only two possible values ☺ The price can go up or down ☺ The perfect market assumptions ☺ No transactions costs, borrowing and lending at the risk free interest rate, no taxes…

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Binomial Option Pricing Model Example The stock price Assume S= $50, u= 10% and d= (-3%) S S u =S·(1+u) S d =S·(1+d) S=$50 S u =$55 S d =$48.5

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Binomial Option Pricing Model Example The call option price Assume X= $50, T= 1 year ( expiration ) C C u = Max{Su-X,0} C d = Max{Sd-X,0} C C u = $5 = Max{55-50,0} C d = $0 = Max{ ,0}

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Binomial Option Pricing Model Example The bond price Assume r= 6% 1 (1+r) $1 $1.06

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Replicating Portfolio At time t=0, we can create a portfolio of N shares of the stock and an investment of B dollars in the risk-free bond. The payoff of the portfolio will replicate the t=1 payoffs of the call option: N·$55 + B·$1.06 = $5 N·$ B·$1.06 = $0 Obviously, this portfolio should also have the same price as the call option at t=0: N·$50 + B·$1 = C We get N=0.7692, B=( ) and the call option price is C=$

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A Different Replication The price of $1 in the “up” state: The price of $1 in the “down” state: ququ $1 $0 qdqd $1

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Replicating Portfolios Using the State Prices We can replicate the t=1 payoffs of the stock and the bond using the state prices: q u ·$55 + q d ·$48.5 = $50 q u ·$ q d ·$1.06 = $1 Obviously, once we solve for the two state prices we can price any other asset in that economy. In particular we can price the call option: q u ·$5 + q d ·$0 = C We get q u =0.6531, q d = and the call option price is C=$

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Binomial Option Pricing Model Example The put option price Assume X= $50, T= 1 year ( expiration ) P P u = Max{X-Su,0} P d = Max{X-Sd,0} P P u = $0 = Max{50-55,0} P d = $1.5 = Max{ ,0}

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Replicating Portfolios Using the State Prices We can replicate the t=1 payoffs of the stock and the bond using the state prices: q u ·$55 + q d ·$48.5 = $50 q u ·$ q d ·$1.06 = $1 But the assets are exactly the same and so are the state prices. The put option price is: q u ·$0 + q d ·$1.5 = P We get q u =0.6531, q d = and the put option price is P=$

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Two Period Example ☺ Assume that the current stock price is $50, and it can either go up 10% or down 3% in each period. ☺ The one period risk-free interest rate is 6%. ☺ What is the price of a European call option on that stock, with an exercise price of $50 and expiration in two periods?

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The Stock Price S= $50, u= 10% and d= (-3%) S=$50 S u =$55 S d =$48.5 S uu =$60.5 S ud =S du =$53.35 S dd =$47.05

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The Bond Price r= 6% (for each period) $1 $1.06 $1.1236

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The Call Option Price X= $50 and T= 2 periods C CuCu CdCd C uu =Max{ ,0}=$10.5 C ud =Max{ ,0}=$3.35 C dd =Max{ ,0}=$0

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State Prices in the Two Period Tree We can replicate the t=1 payoffs of the stock and the bond using the state prices: q u ·$55 + q d ·$48.5 = $50 q u ·$ q d ·$1.06 = $1 Note that if u, d and r are the same, our solution for the state prices will not change (regardless of the price levels of the stock and the bond): q u ·S·(1+u) + q d ·S ·(1+d) = S q u ·(1+r) t + q d ·(1+r) t = (1+r) (t-1) Therefore, we can use the same state-prices in every part of the tree.

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The Call Option Price q u = and q d = C CuCu CdCd C uu =$10.5 C ud =$3.35 C dd =$0 C u = *$ *$3.35 = $7.83 C d = *$ *$0.00 = $2.19 C = *$ *$2.19 = $5.75

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Two Period Example ☺ What is the price of a European put option on that stock, with an exercise price of $50 and expiration in two periods? ☺ What is the price of an American call option on that stock, with an exercise price of $50 and expiration in two periods? ☺ What is the price of an American put option on that stock, with an exercise price of $50 and expiration in two periods?

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Two Period Example ☺ European put option - use the tree or the put-call parity ☺ What is the price of an American call option - if there are no dividends … ☺ American put option – use the tree

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The European Put Option Price q u = and q d = P PuPu PdPd P uu =$0 P ud =$0 P dd =$2.955 P u = *$ *$0 = $0 P d = *$ *$2.955 = $0.858 P EU = *$ *$0.858 = $0.249

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The American Put Option Price q u = and q d = P Am PuPu PdPd P uu =$0 P ud =$0 P dd =$2.955

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American Put Option Note that at time t=1 the option buyer will decide whether to exercise the option or keep it till expiration. If the payoff from immediate exercise is higher than the option value the optimal strategy is to exercise: If Max{ X-S u,0 } > P u (European) => Exercise

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The American Put Option Price q u = and q d = P PuPu PdPd P uu =$0 P ud =$0 P dd =$2.955 P u = Max{ * *0, } = $0 P d = Max{ * *2.955, } = = $1.5 P Am = Max{ * *1.5, } = $ > $ = P Eu

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Determinants of the Values of Call and Put Options Variable C – Call Value P – Put Value S – stock price IncreaseDecrease X – exercise price DecreaseIncrease σ – stock price volatility IncreaseIncrease T – time to expiration IncreaseIncrease r – risk-free interest rate IncreaseDecrease Div – dividend payouts DecreaseIncrease

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Black-Scholes Model ☺ Developed around 1970 ☺ Closed form, analytical pricing model ☺ An equation ☺ Can be calculated easily and quickly (using a computer or even a calculator) ☺ The limit of the binomial model if we are making the number of periods infinitely large and every period very small – continuous time ☺ Crucial assumptions ☺ The risk free interest rate and the stock price volatility are constant over the life of the option.

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Black-Scholes Model C – call premium S – stock price X – exercise price T – time to expiration r – the interest rate σ – std of stock returns ln(z) – natural log of z e -rT – exp{-rT} = (2.7183) -rT N(z) – standard normal cumulative probability cumulative probability

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The N(0,1) Distribution μ z =0 pdf(z) z N(z)

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Black-Scholes example C – ? S – $47.50 X – $50 T – 0.25 years r – 0.05 (5% annual rate compounded compounded continuously) continuously) σ – 0.30 (or 30%)

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Black-Scholes Example C – ? S – $47.50 X – $50 T – 0.25 years r – 0.05 (5% annual rate compounded compounded continuously) continuously) σ – 0.30 (or 30%)

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Black-Scholes Model ☺ Continuous time and therefore continuous compounding ☺ N(d) – loosely speaking, N(d) is the “risk adjusted” probability that the call option will expire in the money (check the pricing for the extreme cases: 0 and 1) ☺ ln(S/X) – approximately, a percentage measure of option “moneyness”

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Black-Scholes Model P – Put premium S – stock price X – exercise price T – time to expiration r – the interest rate σ – std of stock returns ln(z) – natural log of z e -rT – exp{-rT} = (2.7183) -rT N(z) – standard normal cumulative cumulative probability probability

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Black-Scholes Example P – ? S – $47.50 X – $50 T – 0.25 years r – 0.05 (5% annual rate compounded compounded continuously) continuously) σ – 0.30 (or 30%)

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The Put Call Parity The continuous time version (continuous compounding):

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Stock Return Volatility One approach: Calculate an estimate of the volatility using the historical stock returns and plug it in the option formula to get pricing

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Stock Return Volatility Another approach: Calculate the stock return volatility implied by the option price observed in the market (a trial and error algorithm)

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Option Price and Volatility Let σ 1 < σ 2 be two possible, yet different return volatilities; C 1, C 2 be the appropriate call option prices; and P 1, P 2 be the appropriate put option prices. We assume that the options are European, on the same stock S that pays no dividends, with the same expiration date T. Note that our estimate of the stock return volatility changes. The two different prices are of the same option, and can not exist at the same time! Then, C 1 ≤ C 2 and P 1 ≤ P 2

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Implied Volatility - example C – $2.5 S – $47.50 X – $50 T – 0.25 years r – 0.05 (5% annual rate compounded compounded continuously) continuously) σ – ?

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Implied Volatility - example C – ? S – $47.50 X – $50 T – 0.25 years r – 0.05 (5% annual rate compounded compounded continuously) continuously) σ – 0.30 (or 30%)

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Implied Volatility - example C – $2.5 > $ S – $47.50 X – $50 T – 0.25 years r – 0.05 (5% annual rate compounded compounded continuously) continuously) σ 0.3?

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Implied Volatility - example C – ? S – $47.50 X – $50 T – 0.25 years r – 0.05 (5% annual rate compounded compounded continuously) continuously) σ – 0.40 (or 40%)

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Implied Volatility - example C – ? S – $47.50 X – $50 T – 0.25 years r – 0.05 (5% annual rate compounded compounded continuously) continuously) σ – 0.35 (or 35%)

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Application: Portfolio Insurance Options can be used to guarantee minimum returns from an investment in stocks. Purchasing portfolio insurance (protective put strategy): Long one stock; Buy a put option on one stock; If no put option exists, use a stock and a bond to replicate the put option payoffs. a bond to replicate the put option payoffs.

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Portfolio Insurance Example You decide to invest in one share of General Pills (GP) stock, which is currently traded for $56. The stock pays no dividends. You worry that the stock’s price may decline and decide to purchase a European put option on GPs stock. The put allows you to sell the stock at the end of one year for $50. If the std of the stock price is σ=0.3 (30%) and rf=0.08 (8% compounded continuously), what is the price of the put option? What is the CF from your strategy at time t=0? What is the CF at time t=1 as a function of 0~~
~~

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Portfolio Insurance Example What if there is no put option on the stock that you wish to insure? - Use the B&S formula to replicate the protective put strategy. What is your insurance strategy? What is the CF from your strategy at time t=0? Suppose that one week later, the price of the stock increased to $60, what is the value of the stocks and bonds in your portfolio? How should you rebalance the portfolio to keep the insurance?

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Portfolio Insurance Example The B&S formula for the put option: -P = -Xe -rT [1-N(d 2 )]+S[1-N(d 1 )] Therefore the insurance strategy (Original portfolio + synthetic put) is: Long one share of stock Long X·[1-N(d 2 )] bonds Short [1-N(d 1 )] stocks

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Portfolio Insurance Example The total time t=0 CF of the protective put (insured portfolio) is: CF 0 = -S 0 -P 0 = -S 0 -Xe -rT [1-N(d 2 )]+S 0 [1-N(d 1 )] = -S 0 -Xe -rT [1-N(d 2 )]+S 0 [1-N(d 1 )] = -S 0 [N(d 1 )] -Xe -rT [1-N(d 2 )] = -S 0 [N(d 1 )] -Xe -rT [1-N(d 2 )] And the proportion invested in the stock is: w stock =-S 0 [N(d 1 )] /{-S 0 [N(d 1 )] -Xe -rT [1-N(d 2 )]}

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Portfolio Insurance Example The proportion invested in the stock is: w stock = S 0 [N(d 1 )] /{S 0 [N(d 1 )] +Xe -rT [1-N(d 2 )]} Or, if we remember the original (protective put) strategy: w stock = S 0 [N(d 1 )] /{S 0 + P 0 } Finally, the proportion invested in the bond is: w bond = 1-w stock

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Portfolio Insurance Example Say you invest $1,000 in the portfolio today (t=0) Time t = 0: w stock = 56·0.7865/( ) = 75.45% Stock value = *$1,000 = $754.5 Bond value = *$1,000 = $245.5 End of week 1 (we assumed that the stock price increased to $60): Stock value = ($60/$56)·$754.5 = $ Bond value = $245.5·e 0.08·(1/52) = $ Portfolio value = $ $ = $1,054.27

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Portfolio Insurance Example Now you have a $1, portfolio Time t = 1 (beginning of week 2): w stock = 60·0.8476/( ) = 82.53% Stock value = *$1, = $ Bond value = *$1, = $ I.e. you should rebalance your portfolio (increase the proportion of stocks to 82.53% and decrease the proportion of bonds to 17.47%). Why should we rebalance the portfolio? Should we rebalance the portfolio if we use the protective put strategy with a real put option?

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Practice Problems BKM Ch. 21: 7-10, 17,18 Practice set:

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