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Agreement! Subjects and Verbs Pronouns and Antecedents Verb Tense.

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Presentation on theme: "Agreement! Subjects and Verbs Pronouns and Antecedents Verb Tense."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agreement! Subjects and Verbs Pronouns and Antecedents Verb Tense

2 Subject / Verb Agreement The subject of a sentence must agree with the sentence’s verb in terms of the following: ◦ Number A singular subject must take a singular verb A plural subject must take a plural verb

3 Finding the Subject! What the sentence is about Oftentimes…… ◦ The noun or pronoun immediately next to the verb: 1) The dog ran to the school. 2) He is in charge of the team. 3) Quickly, the boys ran away from Boo Radley.

4 Sometimes…… ◦ The noun or pronoun that the sentence is about but has been separated from the verb by a phrase or clause 1) The Congressmen of the United States are in session. 2) Although sweet, the lollypops in the bag are also tart. 3) Despite the fact that he was late, the boy with the sandy blond hair and the late passes was not sweating!

5 HINT!!!! The subject of a sentence is NEVER in a prepositional phrase (group of word acting as a unit but do not have a subject, verb, or complete thought) or in an interrupting clause. The ships in the harbor were painted red The dog who was baying at the moon was black. Although she was smart, her grades, which were not very good, were reflective of her efforts.

6 Your Subject Must Agree With Your Verb! 1) Find the subject of your sentence 2) Find the verb of your sentence 3) Make them agree in terms of number!

7 Modeling A family of Celtic werewolves was off for a picnic on the cliffs. Subject = family Family is singular (ONE group) A family of Celtic werewolves was off for a picnic on the cliffs.

8 Modeling #2 The nymph who left these footprints is usually much more cautious.

9 Modeling #3 The robot you’ve been sending flowers to is wearing his heart on his sleeve.

10 Group Practice An entourage of hangers-on (was / were) sprawling in the lounge. One thing after another (has / have) thrown the troll off-kilter. The afternoon of the fauns (flies / fly) past in a flash of hoofs.

11 Mas! This house with its skeletons in the closets (is / are) all there is to my abode. An assortment of odd chocolates and soft toffees (was / were) congealed in her alligator shoes. The coven of baby witches and warlocks (has / have) been moving in next door.

12 Weird Nouns All of the following are plural in form (have an –s) but take SINGULAR verbs ◦ Physics ◦ Ethics ◦ Mathematics ◦ News ◦ Mumps ◦ Etc.

13 More Weird Nouns All of the following have 2 moving part but act as a singular item. They take PLURAL verbs ◦ Scissors ◦ Pliers ◦ Tweezers ◦ Handcuffs ◦ Tights ◦ Etc.

14 WARNING!!! Confusing items and exceptions to follow……

15 If two subjects refer to the same person or thing, the verb is SINGULAR My sidekick and best friend has arrived. The person arriving is both a sidekick AND a best friend. This is NOT saying that 2 different people have arrived! Macaroni and Cheese is yummy. Gabor’s colleague and compatriot plays a mean alto sax.

16 If each or every comes before singular subjects, they take a SINGULAR verb Each huzzah and hallelujah was bouncing off the dome Every mace and hatchet was safely in its place. NOT were bouncing or were safely!

17 Two or more singular subjects joined by or or nor receive a SINGULAR verb The nymph or the lamia was twining her legs around this tree. The robot or the dentist has requested a tango Elphaba or Glinda is the best witch

18 When subjects are joined with ◦ either….or ◦ neither….nor ◦ not only….but also ◦ not…but the verb agrees with the subject CLOSEST to it. Neither nuclear war nor the meteor showers have hurt the dahlia crop this year.

19 Either history or PE is my favorite class. Not the vampires but the sandman has made a mess of this schloss. Not the maestro but his sycophants have decided to blow this joint.

20 Mas! Everyone and his uncle (is / are) studying podiatry. Not only astrophysics but also music (is / are) my favorite. Neither Betty nor Buffy (sends / send) me love letters anymore.

21 Group Practice Either John or Sam (was / were) the first to arrive. My best friend and wife (is / are) here. Not green beans but pumpkin (is / are) my favorite vegetable.

22 Pronoun – Verb Agreement If the subject of the sentence is a pronoun, the same rules apply with agreement. He is in town. They are cool.

23 But…Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronouns do not refer to any one specific person. They are….not definite or….. INDEFINITE!!!

24 Singular Indefinite Pronouns Each Either Neither Everybody Everyone Anybody Somebody No one

25 Examples Neither of them was eager for the concert to end. ◦ It is really tempting to say “neither ARE..” Someone has found the secret to life! ◦ You wouldn’t say “someone ARE…”

26 Singular OR Plural Indefinites Any All Such None All of the classes ARE here for the assembly All of the class IS here. ◦ Meaning students in a class

27 Examples Is all of the cake devoured? Are all of the pastries gone? Have any of you made up your minds? Are any of you guys with the shaggy shoes interested in running around the lake?

28 Group Practice Each and every student in the class (was / were) on time today. Any of the flowers (is / are) fine with me. All of the songs (is / are) the best I’ve heard.

29 Mas! Everyone (brings / bring) their binders to class as requested. Such crazy students (is / are) most disruptive. Either Guillaume or Herb (fancies / fancy) the girl with the snakes for hair.

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