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Review Questions

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1. What evidence supports the idea that we have better memory for central meaning?

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1. Telescope Experiment 2. Memory for National Anthem Lyrics 3. Johnson 1970 – reading passages 4. David Rubin (1977) – Twenty-Third Pslam Memory 5. Brown & Smiley (1997) – Children telling stories 6. Bransford & Johnson (1972) – Doing laundry 7. War of the Ghosts

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2. In an experiment, participants read one of two sentences: 1. Acacia was trying to make a cake. She was beating the eggs when her mom came to help her. 2. Acacia was trying to make a cake. She was looking for the eggs when her mom came to help her. Later, participants were asked if they read the sentence “Acacia was using a whisk to make a cake.” Who was more likely to falsely recall reading the previous sentence, participants who read sentence 1 or 2 initially? What is this an example of?

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Sentence 1; Pragmatic interference

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3. Participants rated fruits as how similar they are to each other. Based on these ratings, researchers created this map -> a) On the graph, how do you know which items are more similar? b) If you did a reaction time test, where you had participants respond whether statements were true or false, which statement would they respond faster to: “An apple is a fruit” or “An olive is a fruit?” c) T/F: Based on this model, similarity ratings for “Apple to Apple” and “Pomegranate to Pomegranate” are the same, and participants would rate them as such. Bonus: What axiom is this referring to? d) T/F: Based on the geometric axioms of this model, “Apple to Blueberry” and “Blueberry to Apple” would be rated differently in similarity. Bonus: What axiom is this referring to?

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3. Participants rated fruits as how similar they are to each other. Based on these ratings, researchers created this map -> a) On the graph, how do you know which items are more similar? Closer = more similar b) If you did a reaction time test, where you had participants respond whether statements were true or false, which statement would they respond faster to: “An apple is a fruit” or “An olive is a fruit?” An apple is a fruit c) T/F: Based on this model, similarity ratings for “Apple to Apple” and “Pomegranate to Pomegranate” are the same, and participants would rate them as such. Bonus: What axiom is this referring to? F – Minimality d) T/F: Based on the geometric axioms of this model, “Apple to Mango” and “Mango to Apple” would be rated differently in similarity. Bonus: What axiom is this referring to? F - Symmetry

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4. Calculate how similar the following birds are using the equation below: Similarity(X,Y) = Features that X and Y have in common – Features of X that Y doesn’t have – Features of Y that X doesn’t have AnimalPigeonsParrotsPenguins MovementCan Fly Can’t Fly LiveEverywherePan-Tropical Southern Hemisphere Pets?Pets Not Pets ClothingFeathers ReproductionLay Eggs Lay eggs VocalizationCooSquawk/Talk NavigationGood at Directions FavoritesFavorite of Mike Tyson a)Similarity(pigeons, parrots) = b)Similarity(pigeons, penguins) = c)Similarity(parrots, penguins) = BONUS: What theory does this support?

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4. Calculate how similar the following birds are using the equation below: Similarity(X,Y) = Features that X and Y have in common – Features of X that Y doesn’t have – Features of Y that X doesn’t have AnimalPigeonsParrotsPenguins MovementCan Fly Can’t Fly LiveEverywherePan-Tropical Southern Hemisphere Pets?Pets Not Pets ClothingFeathers ReproductionLay Eggs Lay eggs VocalizationCooSquawk/Talk NavigationGood at Directions FavoritesFavorite of Mike Tyson a)Similarity(pigeons, parrots) = 4 – 4 – 2 = -2 b)Similarity(pigeons, penguins) = 2 – 6 – 3 = -7 c)Similarity(parrots, penguins) = 2 – 4 – 3 = -5 BONUS: What theory does this support? Geometric representations of categories

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5. In an experiment participants are shown the word “rain.” After “rain,” participants may see the word “cloud,” “potato,” or “squant.” If the participants are asked whether “cloud,” “potato,” or “squant” are words or not, comparatively how fast will they respond to each? Why?

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Cloud > potato > squant Spreading activation

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ONE FIVENINE THIRTEENSEVENTEENTWENTY-ONE TWENTY-FIVE 234234 678678 10 11 12 14 15 16 18 19 20 22 23 24 26 27 28

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1.Is a drib a lamina?

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2.Is a hsif a lamina?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles? 6.Can a iwik jant?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles? 6.Can a iwik jant? 7.Does a krahs coven?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles? 6.Can a iwik jant? 7.Does a krahs coven? 8.Is a nomlas lamsy?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles? 6.Can a iwik jant? 7.Does a krahs coven? 8.Is a nomlas lamsy? 9.Does a nibor garupo?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles? 6.Can a iwik jant? 7.Does a krahs coven? 8.Is a nomlas lamsy? 9.Does a nibor garupo? 10. Does an iwik have gibbins?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles? 6.Can a iwik jant? 7.Does a krahs coven? 8.Is a nomlas lamsy? 9.Does a nibor garupo? 10. Does an iwik have gibbins? 11. Is a krahs patata?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles? 6.Can a iwik jant? 7.Does a krahs coven? 8.Is a nomlas lamsy? 9.Does a nibor garupo? 10. Does an iwik have gibbins? 11. Is a krahs patata? 12. Does a nomlas have madenko?

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1.Is a drib a lamina? 2.Is a hsif a lamina? 3.Is an iwik a lamina? 4.Is a krahs a hsif? 5.Does a nibor have wabbles? 6.Can a iwik jant? 7.Does a krahs coven? 8.Is a nomlas lamsy? 9.Does a nibor garupo? 10. Does an iwik have gibbins? 11. Is a krahs patata? 12. Does a nomlas have madenko? 13. Is squant a word?

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LAMINA DRIBHSIF NIBORIWIKKRAHSNOMLAS Is flerlung Has gibbins Can laboef Is smadoo Has ferling Can garupo Is patata Has madenko Can terfok Is yambly Has wabbles Can zarg Is squant Has shodank Can jant Is gapper Has blaskles Can covem Is lamsy Has wompers Can nadun

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ANIMAL BIRDFISH ROBINKIWISHARKSALMON

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ANIMAL BIRDFISH ROBINKIWISHARKSALMON 1.A robin is a bird vs a kiwi is a bird. 2.A shark is an animal vs a shark is a fish.

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ANIMAL BIRDFISH ROBINKIWISHARKSALMON 1.A robin is a bird vs a kiwi is a bird. 2.A shark is an animal vs a shark is a fish. Need to revise the TLC model to account for “basic level”

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