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DTV Transition 2009.  What the DTV transition means for Radio Mic Users.

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Presentation on theme: "DTV Transition 2009.  What the DTV transition means for Radio Mic Users."— Presentation transcript:

1 DTV Transition 2009

2  What the DTV transition means for Radio Mic Users

3 The TV Spectrum  Since June 12 th, 2009 the ‘Major TV Broadcasters’ have switched to digital ONLY  A small handful of stations ‘volunteered’ to continue for ‘one month’ as Nightlight Stations transmitting at a reduced power level  Nightlight Stations transmitted a tutorial program on ‘How to switch to Digital’

4 What happened to the Spectrum  Before the final DTV Switch – Broadcasters were transmitting high power TV signals on two separate TV Channels  One Analog and One Digital (DTV)  This took twice as much of the available Radio Spectrum and left no really useable place to work the RF Mics / RFPL / IFB / etc.

5 Common Questions  You’ve heard DTV will make your Wireless Mic obsolete  That is not correct – the Wireless RF Mic is a frequency dependent device.  It’s very important to choose a ‘clear channel / frequency’ that should have NO active TV Channel broadcast on it

6 Common Questions  Selecting a set of Frequencies when knowing what DTV Channels are active in your area  Only open (unoccupied) frequencies should be used.  You should not operate a wireless mic on the same frequency as a local DTV Station

7 Common Questions  Are DTV Stations a ‘BIG PROBLEM’ ?  DTV Station represent an interference problem the same as ANY OTHER transmitted signal.  Avoid choosing a frequency on an active DTV Channel and you have removed a major source of radio ‘hits’ to your system  Consider the ‘White Space Initiatives’

8 Things that are good to know…  FCC Rules that affect the Sound Crews using Radio Equipment  Code of Federal Regulations Title 47  CFR 47 Parts 15, 73, 74 and 97 – What the FCC rules actually say about licensing for radio mics  Where and How to find information on what TV Channels are active in various cities

9 Things that are good to know…  Why care if the Radio Mic is transmitting on an active DTV Channel  Why should the Sound Crew care about the FCC Rules  Why can’t I Transmit on certain TV Channels like Channels 14, 16 and 20 in specific cities in the US  What’s with Channel 37 being blocked nationwide

10 Things that are good to know…  What is a Spectrum Analyzer and how to read the display screen  What the transmitted signals look like on the Spectrum Analyzer  What’s so special about Coordinating the actual Frequencies the RF Mics transmit on  Why does it matter what frequency the Radio Mics are on, isn’t the ‘Block #’ good enough to work with

11 Things that are good to know…  What is  ‘Frequency’  ‘Bandwidth  ‘Intermod’  ‘Image Frequency’  Are all the TV Channels Analog or Digital

12 Things that are good to know…  Radio Mic Operation and use:  Studio / Set Applications and potential problems  Location Shooting  Pros and Cons of various types Receiver Antennas  What’s happens with RF Mic coax, and the distance of the runs to the antennas

13 Things that are good to know…  Do you need a Receiver Amplifier for the radio signal, if yes – then where is the most practical place to set it up in your radio system.  Mic Placement – is it really that critical  Why use RF Mics for Plant Mics on Set  How can I use different mics other than a Wireless Lav

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15 History of Communications  The FCC

16 History of Communications  The FCC  Started with the Communications ACT of 1934

17 History of Communications  The FCC  Started with the Communications ACT of 1934  Was made to regulate Commercial and Amateur HAM Radio transmissions

18 History of Communications  Why Regulate and control both Commercial Broadcasters AND Amateur HAM Radio Stations

19 History of Communications  Because in the early days of Radio…

20 History of Communications  Because in the early days of Radio…  Many of the HAM’s (Amateur Radio) Stations were more powerful and had a better quality signal than many early Commercial Broadcast Radio Stations

21  Most people know that if they watch television the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is part of their life due to its role in regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.

22  What people may not recognize is the extent to which every area of their life is intertwined with the communications technologies the FCC has responsibility to regulate.

23  For example, because almost all electrical and electronic equipment emits radio frequencies, FCC equipment authorization rules protect you when:

24  You play with a radio-controlled airplane, car or boat,

25  Your teenager upstairs sends their homework assignment to the printer downstairs via your new wireless home network,

26  You play with a radio-controlled airplane, car or boat,  Your teenager upstairs sends their homework assignment to the printer downstairs via your new wireless home network,  You push the button on your garage door opener,

27  You heat your breakfast in the microwave,

28  You lock your car with your remote entry system,

29  You heat your breakfast in the microwave,  You lock your car with your remote entry system,  You activate your home alarm system before going to bed.

30  These are just a few of the thousands of ways in which the vital work of the FCC helps facilitate what they define as both personal freedom and the public good.

31  The formal charge of Congress to the FCC can be summed up in less than 30 words –

32  Ensure that the American people have available, at reasonable costs and without discrimination, rapid, efficient, Nation- and world-wide communication services; whether by radio, television, wire, satellite, or cable

33  The day-to-day reality may be that there is no more ubiquitous presence in the lives of most Americans than the FCC-regulated communications industries.

34  What does this all mean ?

35  It means the FCC is tasked with being the Agency that regulates ALL Radio transmitting devices

36

37 What Constitutes a Transmitter  According to the FCC Rules…

38 What Constitutes a Transmitter  According to the FCC Rules…  Any electronic device that operates at a frequency of Nine Thousand Cycles or higher is considered a transmitter that falls under the FCC’s Regulation

39 What Constitutes a Transmitter  According to the FCC Rules…  Any electronic device that operates at a frequency of Nine Thousand Cycles or higher is considered a transmitter that falls under the FCC’s Regulation  That’s just 9 Kilo Hertz ( 9 KHz)

40 Why cover this info:  So you can understand what the FCC actually does…

41 Why cover this info:  So you can understand what the FCC actually does…  The FCC is a ‘Regulatory Agency’

42 Why cover this info:  So you can understand what the FCC actually does…  The FCC is a ‘Regulatory Agency’  The Field Agents do not come and throw you in jail like a policeman would if you are ‘Breaking the Rules’

43 Why cover this info:  So you can understand what the FCC actually does…  The FCC is a ‘Regulatory Agency’  The Field Agents do not come and throw you in jail like a policeman would if you are ‘Breaking the Rules’  The FCC Agents ‘used to carry guns’ … but not any more.

44 Why cover this info:  So you can understand what the FCC actually does…  The FCC is a ‘Regulatory Agency’  The Field Agents do not come and throw you in jail like a policeman would if you are ‘Breaking the Rules’  Now the FCC Agents Issue NAL’s…

45 Why cover this info:  The FCC is the ‘second largest revenue generating’ US Government Agency

46 Why cover this info:  The FCC is the ‘second largest revenue generating’ US Government Agency  The only Agency that generates more revenue for the Federal Government is…

47 Why cover this info:  The FCC is the ‘second largest revenue generating’ US Government Agency  The only Agency that generates more revenue for the Federal Government is…  The Internal Revenue Service (I.R.S.)

48 How does the FCC do this ?  First – The FCC collects licensing fees for the various Radio and TV Licenses they issue across the country.

49 How does the FCC do this ?  First – The FCC collects licensing fees for the various Radio and TV Licenses they issue across the country.  The FCC Issues Fines for improper and / or illegal operations.

50 How does the FCC do this ?  First – The FCC collects licensing fees for the various Radio and TV Licenses they issue across the country.  The FCC Issues Fines for improper and / or illegal operations.  That’s what an NAL is…

51 How does the FCC do this ?  First – The FCC collects licensing fees for the various Radio and TV Licenses they issue across the country.  The FCC Issues Fines for improper and / or illegal operations.  That’s what an NAL is… it’s a Fine

52 How does the FCC do this ?  When FCC issues a ‘Notice of Apparent Liability’ it is commonly referred to as an NAL

53 How does the FCC do this ?  When FCC issues a ‘Notice of Apparent Liability’ it is commonly referred to as an NAL  The NAL can contain fines of $11,000 dollars per incident to a maximum of $82,500 dollars per day and/or a year in Federal Prison.

54 How does the FCC do this ?  That means you can be sent an NAL (fined) for each individual unlicensed radio mic transmitter, IFB or Video Tap as a ‘separate violation’.

55 Why Care…  If the FCC is an Administrative Regulatory Agency, why should you respond to, or even care if you get an NAL ?

56 Why Care…  If the FCC is an Administrative Regulatory Agency, why should you respond to, or even care if you get an NAL ?  This is what happens if you ignore the FCC Letter stating the ‘Notice of Apparent Liability’.

57 Why Care…  The FCC sends the information to the (Federal) U.S. District Attorneys Office

58 Why Care…  The FCC sends the information to the (Federal) U.S. District Attorneys Office  A case is filed, a Federal District Attorney is assigned and the US District Attorneys Office gives the information to the ‘Federal Marshalls’ for enforcement.

59 Why Care…  The FCC sends the information to the (Federal) U.S. District Attorneys Office  A case is filed, a Federal District Attorney is assigned and the US District Attorneys Office gives the information to the ‘Federal Marshalls’ for enforcement.  That’s when Marsall Dillon shows up with his six-shooter and handcuffs…

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61 So what really are the rules

62  The rules are lost in the giant maze of government paperwork called the code of Federal Regulations Section 47

63 So what really are the rules  The rules are lost in the giant maze of government paperwork called the code of Federal Regulations Section 47  Which also has thousands of Sub-Parts and where do you start looking…

64 So what really are the rules  The rules are lost in the giant maze of government paperwork called the code of Federal Regulations Section 47  Which also has thousands of Sub-Parts and where do you start looking…  Where are the appropriate sections to show the basic rules you need to know to avoid the ‘dreaded’ NAL.

65  What do the FCC rules actually say about licensing for radio mics, and where are they found.

66  The rules that we need to know about are in CFR 47 Telecommunications

67 But first…  Why can’t you Transmit on certain TV Channels like 14, 16 and 20 in specific cities in the US – especially here in Los Angeles

68  The FCC in Washington has assigned TV Channels 14, 16 and 20 for Los Angeles Land Mobile Radio Public Safety. That is the Police and Fire Departments.

69  It is illegal to use any type of wireless transmitter that falls within these frequency bands, within 100 miles of Los Angeles.

70 This covers  TV Channel to 476 MHz Police / Fire / Safety  TV Channel to 488 MHz Police / Fire / Safety  TV Channel to 512 MHz Police / Fire / Safety

71  What’s with Channel 37 being blocked nationwide

72  protected by the FCC is Channel 37, which is nationwide.  TV Channel to 614 MHz SETI - Scientific Research

73  protected by the FCC is Channel 37, which is nationwide.  TV Channel to 614 MHz SETI - Scientific Research  !!!! NEVER use Channel 37 !!!!!

74  protected by the FCC is Channel 37, which is nationwide.  TV Channel to 614 MHz SETI - Scientific Research  !!!! NEVER use Channel 37 !!!!!  Remember the FCC says we have to keep CH 37 clear so ET can ‘phone home’…

75

76 CFR 47 Telecommunications  Back to the sections that cover our industry

77 CFR 47 Telecommunications  The info is buried in:  PART 15--RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES

78 CFR 47 Telecommunications  The info is buried in:  PART 15--RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES  PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES

79 CFR 47 Telecommunications  The info is buried in:  PART 74--EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES

80 CFR 47 Telecommunications  The info is buried in:  PART 74--EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES  Radio Mics and Video Assist units fall under Part 74 – Auxiliary Broadcast License

81 CFR 47 Telecommunications  The info is buried in:  PART 74--EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES  PART 97--AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE

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83  What parts are applicable to you…

84 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec Scope of this part.  (a) This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator may be operated without an individual license. It also contains the technical specifications, administrative requirements and other conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices.

85 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec Scope of this part.  (a) This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator may be operated without an individual license. It also contains the technical specifications, administrative requirements and other conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices.

86 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec Scope of this part.  (b) The operation of an intentional or unintentional radiator that is not in accordance with the regulations in this part must be licensed pursuant to the provisions of section 301 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, unless otherwise exempted from the licensing requirements elsewhere in this chapter.

87 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec Scope of this part.  (b) The operation of an intentional or unintentional radiator that is not in accordance with the regulations in this part must be licensed pursuant to the provisions of section 301 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, unless otherwise exempted from the licensing requirements elsewhere in this chapter.

88 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec Scope of this part.  (b) The operation of an intentional or unintentional radiator that is not in accordance with the regulations in this part must be licensed pursuant to the provisions of section 301 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, unless otherwise exempted from the licensing requirements elsewhere in this chapter.

89 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec Definitions. (a) Auditory assistance device. An intentional radiator used to provide auditory assistance to a handicapped person or persons. Such a device may be used for auricular training in an education institution, for auditory assistance at places of public gatherings, such as a church, theater, or auditorium, and for auditory assistance to handicapped individuals, only, in other locations.

90 CFR 47 Part 15  PART 15_RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES--Table of Contents  Subpart C_Intentional Radiators  Sec Operation in the band kHz. (a) The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater power) shall not exceed one watt.  (b) The total length of the transmission line, antenna, and ground lead (if used) shall not exceed 15 meters.

91 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec (c) All emissions below 160 kHz or above 190 kHz shall be attenuated at least 20 dB below the level of the unmodulated carrier. Determination of compliance with the 20 dB attenuation specification may be based on measurements at the intentional radiator's antenna output terminal unless the intentional radiator uses a permanently attached antenna, in which case compliance shall be demonstrated by measuring the radiated emissions.

92 CFR 47 Part 15  Done using various Test Equipment  Spectrum Analyzers  Service Monitors  Scanners  Signal Srength Meters  Or a variety of other RF Metering Equipment

93 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec Operation in the band kHz. (a) The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater power) shall not exceed 100 milliwatts.

94 CFR 47 Part 15  ** Notice ** different Frequencies are allowed very specific transmit power levels  First 1 Watt – then 100 milliwatts, etc.

95 CFR 47 Part 15  Sec Operation in the bands MHz and MHz. (a) The marketing and operation of intentional radiators under the provisions of this section is restricted to biomedical telemetry devices employed solely on the premises of health care facilities.

96 CFR 47 Part 15  So Part 15 basically covers…  Audio Assist for a church, theater, or auditorium, and for auditory assistance to handicapped individuals,  Biomedical Transmitters on the Medical Facility Property

97 CFR 47 Part 15  So Part 15 basically covers…  Audio Assist for a church, theater, or auditorium, and for auditory assistance to handicapped individuals,  Biomedical Transmitters on the Medical Facility Property  Does Not cover RF Mics and Video Taps

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99 CFR 47 Part 73  PART 73 – Radio Broadcast Services

100 CFR 47 Part 73  PART 73 – Radio Broadcast Services  This covers the operation of all AM, FM Radio Stations.

101 CFR 47 Part 73  PART 73 – Radio Broadcast Services  This covers the operation of all AM, FM Radio Stations.  Low Power Community Radio Stations

102 CFR 47 Part 73  PART 73 – Radio Broadcast Services  This covers the operation of all AM, FM Radio Stations.  Low Power Community Radio Stations  Television Stations

103 CFR 47 Part 73  PART 73 – Radio Broadcast Services  This covers the operation of all AM, FM Radio Stations.  Low Power Community Radio Stations  Television Stations  Low Power Community TV Station

104 CFR 47 Part 73  Unless you are operating a higher power Radio or TV Station, Part 73 has very little effect on RF Mics and Video Assist  It does define the Broadcast Stations as primary users of the Radio and TV Channel Spectrum

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106 CFR 47 Part 74  PART 74--EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES

107 CFR 47 Part 74  PART 74--EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES  ** This is the section the Wireless Mics and Video Assist Systems ACTUALLY fall under.  ** It is where our gear is ‘Regulated by Law’

108 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec General definitions.  Broadcast network-entity. A broadcast network-entity is an organization which produces programs available for simultaneous transmission by 10 or more affiliated broadcast stations and having distribution facilities or circuits available to such affiliated stations at least 12 hours each day.

109 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec General definitions.  Cable network-entity. A cable network- entity is an organization which produces programs available for simultaneous transmission by cable systems serving a combined total of at least 5,000,000 subscribers and having distribution facilities or circuits available to such affiliated stations or cable systems.

110 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec Temporary authorizations. (a) Special temporary authority may be granted for remote pickup station operation which cannot be conducted in accordance with Sec Such authority will normally be granted only for operations of a temporary nature. Where operation is seen as likely on a continuing annual basis, an application for a regular authorization should be submitted.

111 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec Licensing requirements. Aural auxiliary stations licensed to low power FM stations will be assigned on a secondary basis; i.e., subject to the condition that no harmful interference is caused to other aural auxiliary stations assigned to radio broadcast stations. Auxiliary stations licensed to low power FM stations must accept any interference caused by stations having primary use of aural auxiliary frequencies.

112 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  Licensing requirements and procedures.  (a) A license authorizing operation of one or more low power auxiliary stations will be issued only to the following:

113 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  (1) A licensee of an AM, FM, TV, or International broadcast station or low power TV station. Low power auxiliary stations will be licensed for use with a specific broadcast or low power TV station or combination of stations licensed to the same licensee within the same community.

114 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  (2) A broadcast network entity.  (3) A cable television system operator who operates a cable system that produces program material for origination or access cablecasting, as defined in Sec. 76.5(r).

115 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  (4) Motion picture producers as defined in Sec  (5) Television program producers as defined in Sec  ** The Sec definition presents a VERY-VERY-VERY important ‘loophole’ that does work to your advantage…

116 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec Definitions.  Motion picture producer. Motion picture producer refers to a person or organization engaged in the production or filming of motion pictures.  ** NOTE : refers to ‘a person’ - ‘engaged in the production or filming’

117 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec Definitions.  Television program producer. Television program producer refers to a person or organization engaged in the production of television programs.  ** NOTE : refers to ‘a person’ - ‘engaged in the production of television programs’

118 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec Definitions.  I was a member of the AMPTP SC-FCC Board that helped get the next part added to the FCC rules.  It resolves a ‘grey area’ while using RF Video Gear on Film and TV Shows.

119 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec Definitions.  Wireless assist video device. An auxiliary station authorized and operated by motion picture and television program producers pursuant to the provisions of this subpart. These stations are intended to transmit over distances of approximately 300 meters for use as an aid in composing camera shots on motion picture and television sets.

120 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  This is a recent addition to the FCC Rules and covers Wireless Video Assist as used on Location by Production Crews.

121 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec Wireless video assist devices. Television broadcast auxiliary licensees and motion picture and television producers, as defined in Sec may operate wireless video assist devices on a non-interference basis on VHF and UHF television channels to assist with production activities.

122 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec (a) The use of wireless video assist devices must comply with all provisions of this subpart, except as indicated in paragraphs (b) through (i) of this section.

123 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec (b) Wireless video assist devices may only be used for scheduled productions. They may not be used to produce live events and may not be used for electronic news gathering purposes.

124 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec (c) Wireless video assist devices may operate with a bandwidth not to exceed 6 MHz on frequencies in the bands MHz (TV channels 8- 12) and MHz (TV channels 14-51)

125 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec subject to the following restrictions: (1) The bandwidth may only occupy a single TV channel.

126 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec subject to the following restrictions: (2) Operation is prohibited within the MHz (TV channel 37) band.

127 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec subject to the following restrictions: (2) Operation is prohibited within the MHz (TV channel 37) band.  ** There goes ET phoning home again…

128 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec subject to the following restrictions: (3) Operation is prohibited within 129 km of a television broadcasting station, including Class A television stations, low power television stations and translator stations.

129 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  (d) Wireless video assist devices are limited to a maximum of 250 milliwatts ERP and must limit power to that necessary to reliably receive a signal at a distance of 300 meters. Wireless video assist devices must comply with the emission limitations of Sec

130 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  (e) The antenna of a wireless video assist device must be attached to the transmitter either permanently, or by means of a unique connector designed to allow replacement of authorized antennas but prevent the use of unauthorized antennas. When transmitting, the antenna must not be more than 10 meters above ground level.

131 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  (g) Notification procedure. Prior to the commencement of transmitting, licensees must notify the local broadcasting coordinator of their intent to transmit. If there is no local coordinator in the intended area of operation, licensees must notify all adjacent channel TV stations within 161 km (100 mi) of the proposed operating area.

132 CFR 47 Part 74  Sec  (g) Notification procedure. Prior to the commencement of transmitting, licensees must notify the local broadcasting coordinator of their intent to transmit. If there is no local coordinator in the intended area of operation, licensees must notify all adjacent channel TV stations within 161 km (100 mi) of the proposed operating area.

133

134 CFR 47 Part 97  PART 97--AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE

135 CFR 47 Part 97  PART 97_AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE-- Table of Contents Subpart A_General Provisions Sec (a) Recognition and enhancement of the value of the amateur service to the public as a voluntary noncommercial communication service, particularly with respect to providing emergency communications.

136 CFR 47 Part 97  PART 97_AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE-- Table of Contents Subpart A_General Provisions Sec (b) Continuation and extension of the amateur's proven ability to contribute to the advancement of the radio art.

137 CFR 47 Part 97  PART 97_AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE-- Table of Contents Subpart A_General Provisions Sec (c) Encouragement and improvement of the amateur service through rules which provide for advancing skills in both the communication and technical phases of the art.

138 CFR 47 Part 97  PART 97_AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE-- Table of Contents Subpart A_General Provisions Sec (d) Expansion of the existing reservoir within the amateur radio service of trained operators, technicians, and electronics experts.

139 CFR 47 Part 97  PART 97_AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE-- Table of Contents Subpart A_General Provisions Sec (e) Continuation and extension of the amateur's unique ability to enhance international goodwill.

140 CFR 47 Part 97  Sec Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall transmit:

141 CFR 47 Part 97  Sec Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall transmit:  (1) Communications specifically prohibited elsewhere in this part;

142 CFR 47 Part 97  Sec Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall transmit:  (1) Communications specifically prohibited elsewhere in this part;  (2) Communications for hire or for material compensation, direct or indirect, paid or promised, except as otherwise provided in these rules;

143 CFR 47 Part 97  Sec Prohibited transmissions. (b) An amateur station shall not engage in any form of broadcasting, nor may an amateur station transmit one-way communications except as specifically provided in these rules; nor shall an amateur station engage in any activity related to program production or news gathering for broadcasting purposes, except that communications directly related to the immediate safety of human life or the protection of property may be provided by amateur stations to broadcasters for dissemination to the public where no other means of communication is reasonably available before or at the time of the event.

144 CFR 47 Part 97  Sec Prohibited transmissions. (b) An amateur station shall not engage in any form of broadcasting, nor may an amateur station transmit one-way communications except as specifically provided in these rules; nor shall an amateur station engage in any activity related to program production or news gathering for broadcasting purposes, except that communications directly related to the immediate safety of human life or the protection of property may be provided by amateur stations to broadcasters for dissemination to the public where no other means of communication is reasonably available before or at the time of the event.

145 CFR 47 Part 97  Basically… Don’t use HAM Radio Gear for your Production.  It is an easy way to get the FCC to issue you an NAL.

146 CFR 47 Part 97  Basically… Don’t use HAM Radio Gear for your Production.  It is an easy way to get the FCC to issue you an NAL.  UNLESS there is an actual emergency

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148 Radio Spectrum  What is available and how to know what Frequencies to tune the Wireless Mics to.  How to find what DTV / LPTV Stations are working in areas you will be shooting – in or out of the Los Angeles Area

149 Radio Spectrum  A range of Radio frequencies that defines allowable or usable channels for specific radio transmission technologies. Radio Spectrum is typically Government regulated in most developed countries and in some cases sold or licensed to operators of private radio transmission systems. (e.g. Broadcast Television Stations). The range of allocated frequencies are often referred to by the provisioned use. (e.g. Broadcast Television Spectrum) Radio frequenciesRadio frequencies

150 Radio Frequency  Radio frequency (RF) is a frequency or rate of oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz to 300 GHz frequencyoscillationHzfrequencyoscillationHz  Radio frequency is a single slice / piece of the Radio Spectrum.

151 Spectrum Analyzer  A spectrum analyzer or spectral analyzer is a device used to examine the spectral composition of some electrical, acoustic, or optical waveform. It may also measure the power spectrum. electricalacoustic opticalwaveform power spectrumelectricalacoustic opticalwaveform power spectrum  There are both analog and digital spectrum analyzers analogdigitalanalogdigital

152 Spectrum Analyzer  That means … A Spectrum Analyzer is a tool used to ‘see’ the Radio Energy transmitted in different parts of the radio spectrum, how much space the signal occupies (bandwidth) and how strong the signal is (Watts).

153 Spectrum Analyzer  Usually, a spectrum analyzer displays a power spectrum over a given frequency range, changing the display as the properties of the signal change.  There is a trade-off between how quickly the display can be updated and the frequency resolution, which is for example relevant for distinguishing frequency components that are close together.

154 Spectrum Analyzer  Bandwidth is normally displayed and read from the left (lowest part of the frequency range) to the right (highest part of the frequency range)  Like a number line going from 1 to 100  There are ‘resolution’ setting to determine ‘how much / how wide’ to display the spectrum you need to look at

155 Spectrum Analyzer  The spectrum analyzer displays the radio transmitter power (How much energy is being used) on a portion of the radio spectrum by showing the height of the radio signal.  The bottom to top of the screen is usually a ‘logarithmic’ display – meaning each block going up is a 10x increase in the radio power shown

156 LA at 3:30 PM on 14 July 2009

157 A look at the TV Spectrum  The next slide shows a picture of what a single Analog TV Transmitter signal looks like on the spectrum analyzer  Notice the low radio energy (blank spots) between the video part of the signal at the low part of the frequency and the audio part of the signal at the higher end of the 6 MHz TV Channel

158 Analog TV Tranmission

159 Now the DTV Signal  The next slide shows a picture of the new DTV TV Transmitter signal and what it looks like on the spectrum analyzer  Notice there are no longer a blank space available in the 6 MHz TV Channel  It looks like a giant batch of ‘static’ to your radio receiver

160 DTV TV Transmission

161 Things that are good to know…  What is ‘Bandwidth’  In radio communications, for example, bandwidth is the range of frequencies occupied by a modulated carrier wave radiofrequencies modulatedcarrier waveradiofrequencies modulatedcarrier wave  What is ‘Intermod’  Intermodulation or intermodulation distortion (IMD), or intermod for short, is the result of two or more signals of different frequencies being mixed together, forming additional signals signalsfrequenciesmixedsignalsfrequenciesmixed

162 Things that are good to know…  What is an ‘Image Frequency’  the image frequency is an undesired input frequency that is capable of producing the same intermediate frequency (IF) that the desired input frequency produces. It is a potential source of interference to proper reception. frequencyintermediate frequency intermediate frequency

163 Things that are good to know…  Are all the TV Broadcast signals now Digital  No – by law only the Major Broadcasters had to change to the DTV Broadcast signal  LPTV (Low Power TV) Stations are still allowed to broadcast their Analog TV Signal, and there is not yet a mandatory time for them to switch to a Digital TV transmission

164 Things that are good to know…  I mentioned the LPTV Stations because they do not always show up in the primary database’s that you can check on the websites before going on a Location Shoot

165 Things that are good to know…  Why care if the Radio Mic is transmitting on an active DTV Channel

166 Things that are good to know…  Why care if the Radio Mic is transmitting on an active DTV Channel  Because of the FM Capture Effect… the DTV Station will reduce the effective range of a radio mic to only a few feet from the receiver before it takes hits or is ‘wiped out’ by the stronger DTV TV Signal

167 Things that are good to know…  Where and How to find information on what TV Channels are active in various cities  For Los Angeles you can use the spreadsheet in your information book  You can also lookup what channels DTV Stations are transmitting on in different cities at the following websites

168 Things that are good to know…  FCC DTV Maps Website by Zip Code   Lectrosonics  tionlookup.htm tionlookup.htm tionlookup.htm  Sennheiser 

169 What happened to the Spectrum  Refer to the Spreadsheet in your handout  It shows the TV Channel, then the low to high frequencies spectrum the TV channel uses  The next column shows the ‘current’ active LA area DTV Stations transmitting  Beside that I added a couple columns to show the Frequency Blocks of the RF Mics made available with Lectrosonics and Shure

170 What happened to the Spectrum  On the far right column, it shows all the LA Area TV Stations and where they are transmitting through June 12 th  You can see where there are now ‘Open Channels’ referred to as “White Spaces’  These white spaces are areas you can pick frequencies to use for the RF Mics

171 What happened to the Spectrum  You also see how a lot of the former ‘TV Channel Spectrum’ was taken away and has been reallocated to LMRSS (Land Mobile Radio)  You can’t legally use those frequencies any more, you risk being jammed by Cell Phones and Walkie Talkies, and being fined

172 Spectrum Use  What’s so special about Coordinating the actual Frequencies the RF Mics transmit on  Coordinating the Radio Mic Frequencies helps prevent down time and lost takes. It also allows the radio mic sets to have the individual frequencies checked to keep the system from creating RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) and jamming your own radio mics.

173 Spectrum Use  Why does it matter what frequency the Radio Mics are on, isn’t the ‘Block #’ good enough to work with  No the block # is too generic, In order to prevent Radio Interference to yourself and other shows/stages shooting nearby. The actual frequency is what has to be checked. There are too many frequencies within a single ‘block ##’ to clear a radio mic.

174  When you know the actual frequency you are transmitting on, you can easily deal with the following problems  Prevent Radio Interference before you start filming  Know where to change frequency to so you can ‘get away from potential RFI’

175

176 More good stuff to know…  Radio Mic Operation and use: Open Discussion of various mixer RF Mics applications  Studio / Set Applications and potential problems

177 More good stuff to know…  Discuss the Pros/Cons of using the ‘Spectrum Scan option’ in many of the newer Radio Mic Receivers to find open Channels  Location Shooting  Pros and Cons of various types Receiver Antennas

178 More good stuff to know…  Radio Mic Operation and use:  Studio / Set Applications and potential problems  What’s the difference in RF Mic coax, and what happens with the distance of the runs to the antennas

179 More good stuff to know…  Do you need a Receiver Amplifier for the radio signal, if yes – then where is the most practical place to set it up in your radio system.  Is it really Practical to run Wireless Booms for the entire show – what are some of the risks in doing so

180 More good stuff to know…  Do you need a Receiver Amplifier for the radio signal, if yes – then where is the most practical place to set it up in your radio system.  Mic Placement – is it really that critical  Why use RF Mics for Plant Mics on Set  How can I use different mics other than a Wireless Lav

181 Things that are good to share…  If you are still awake, it’s time for an open discussion of specific radio problems you have on location, and share possible solutions from other that have had the same type of radio problems

182 Reference Data from:  CBS Studio Center – Timothy N. Holly  Code of Federal Regulations  Title 47 Telecommunications  Part 15  Part 73  Part 74  Part 97  FCC Official Website:  FCC DTV Website:  FCC office of Engineering and Technology  Government Printing Office  Lectrosonics  Sennheiser  Shure  Wolf Seeburg Video

183 DTV Transition 2009 What the DTV transition means for Radio Mic Users End


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