Presentation on theme: "Jenny D’Anthony Dana Eastman Has no single founder, as Hinduism was not founded as a religion, but developed as a culture. It developed out of Brahmanism."— Presentation transcript:
Jenny D’Anthony Dana Eastman
Has no single founder, as Hinduism was not founded as a religion, but developed as a culture. It developed out of Brahmanism.
While Hinduism has no distinctive starting point it is believed to have been brought into the Indus Valley when the Indus Valley Civilization began to crumble (around 1800 BCE due to flooding or drought) and Aryans (Indo-Europeans) came in and established this CULTURE
SymbolNameMeaning Om (Aum) The three worlds – earth, atmosphere, and heaven The three major Hindu gods – Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva The three sacred Vedic scriptures – Rg, Yajur, and Sama Embodies the essence of the entire universe Lotus Represent beauty and non-attachment The lotus is rooted in the mud but floats on the water without becoming wet or muddy ant thus suggests that one should live their life without attachment to their surroundings Pratik Encourages social service, meditation, and yoga Upward-pointing triangle – one’s external actions Downward- pointing triangle – one’s internal work Rising sun – spiritual progress through the balance of one’s external and internal efforts Swastika – fulfillment of one’s ultimate spiritual goal
SymbolNameMeaning Trishula Emblem of god Shiva The three prongs represent Shiva’s three roles: creator, preserver, and destroyer and Shiva’s three powers: will, action, and wisdom Yantra Represents the universe Is used in worship and meditation Bindi Dot worn on married women’s foreheads Symbolized female energy and is believed to protect women and their husbands
Hindus actually only believe in one God, Brahma, the founder of all existence. The Hindu gods (all 330 million of them) represent different forms of Brahman. 1. Siva – Destroyer of the world. Represents death and termination. 2. Vishnu – Preserver of the world. Peace-loving god and sustainer of life. 3. Krishna – Considered a leader, hero, protector, philosopher, teacher and friend all combined into one.
4. Rama – Symbol of chivalry and virtue and embodiment of truth. 5. Hanuman – Worshiped as a symbol of physical strength, perseverance, and endurance. 6. Ganesha – He is the god of knowledge, wisdom, and wealth. He is the lord of success and destroyer of evil. He is the remover of obstacles.
Originated in Northern India around the Indus River
It is still mainly present in Asia, particularly India, where it remains as the main religion. There are also a significant number of followers in Africa and Northern America, but with regards to total population size, the numbers and minimal. AreaAdherents Population Percentage Africa1,475,0000.2% Asia728,118, % Europe704,0000.1% Latin America 884,0000.2% Northern America 1,269,0000.5% Oceania360,0001.3% Eurasia2,0000.0% World732,812, %
There are approximately 806 million worldwide followers of Hinduism, making it the world’s third most popular religion.
Hinduism, for the most part stayed in India, as it is an ethnic religion, however at the beginning in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, many of the early kingdoms in Southeast Asia adopted and adapted specific Hindu texts, theologies, rituals, architectural styles, and forms of social organization that suited their historical and social conditions. It is unknown whether this presence was from slow immigration and settlement by prominent Indians or from visits to Indians by Southeast Asians who took elements of Indian culture back home. Hindu and Buddhist traders, priests, and, occasionally, princes traveled to Southeast Asia from India in the first few centuries of the Common Era and eventually settled there.
The religion accommodated spirituality and provided a satisfying conduct for ordinary life. The religion allowed many people to retain older beliefs and ceremonies. It reached out to all different people in society. It gave people in lower castes hope for a better time in lives to come if they behaved well and it gave upper-caste people, including the brahamans, the opportunity to be rewarded with Moksha if they behaved well. Moksha
There are 2 main categories of Hindu scripture: 1. Shruti (that which is heard): - The Vedas: Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally but later recorded in sacred books. They cover a range of subjects, encompassing everything from nature to everyday life and behavior. They serve to guide Hindus in their daily life. - Upanishads: Epic poems that consider the nature of the individual soul (Atman) and the universal soul (Brahman). Reveals Hindu’s belief in reincarnation.
2. Smriti (that which is remembered): - The Smrutis – legal and ethical texts - The Purans - A collection of ancient tales about the different incarnations and the lives of saints. - Ramayana – The story of Rama and his devoted wife Sita. The poem is about how good will always triumph over evil, as Rama and Sita serve as role models for the perfect husband and wife. - Mahabharata – Tells the story of war between two branches of family. It serves to emphasize Hindu values of honor, love, and social duty. * Bhagavad Gita – Tells how one must do their duty even when it is difficult and painful.
Home Most worship is an individual act so most worship is done at home Shrines with an image or icon Shrines can be an entire room or a small alter The shrine is where they pray and make offerings Temple Called Mahdir Usually visited on the weekends or for festivals A priest typically recites the Vedas to the worshippers gathered
Men Head of household Originally were the only ones who could read holy scriptures according to their caste Controlled their wives Women Their traditional role is to be a wife and mother and take care of the household This role has evolved over the past fifty years They now can take part in more religious rituals, read all holy scriptures, and become female gurus Many still follow traditional roles while others take advantage of the new opportunities
Varanasi City Home of Lord Shiva Most important pilgrimage site Ganges River Holiest river because Varanasi is located right next to the river
Diwali, Festival of Lights Celebrates the victory of good over evil It symbolizes the renewal of hope, friendship, and goodwill Celebrated with lights and fireworks for five days Krishra Janmashtami (Krishra Jayanti) Celebrates the birth of Krishra who is one of the most popular gods Krishra is believed to be an incarnation of Vishnu It is a 48 hour celebration with singing and dancing Many Hindus do not sleep and some fast the first day
Navaratri (Nine Nights) Symbolizes and celebrates the triumph of good over evil Dedicated to Durga, the Mother Goddess She battled the demon Mahishasura for nine days and nights and was victorious It is celebrated through dancing and feasts The nine days also symbolizes the nine days out of the year that Durga was given permission from Shiva to visit her mother Many people try to return home during this holiday
Holi (The Festival of Colors) Originally welcomed spring and was a festival of fertility and harvest Now it celebrates several legends The main one is the legend of Prahalad and Holika which is another good triumphs evil legend Prahalad was the son of the demon king Hiranyakashyap, however Prahalad was faithful to Vishnu. The demon king tried to kill his son several times but he failed every time. He then asked his sister, Holika, to kill his son. She failed too and died in the process. Prahalad then kills his father with the help of Vishnu and rules as king.
Creation Story Everyone has an atman which is a human soul All atmans are a part of brahman which is the world’s soul All atmans are reincarnated until moksha is achieved
End times story The atman is in an endless cycle of reincarnation The only way to break this cycle is to achieve Moksha Moksha is becoming one with the Brahman This can be achieved through performing duties according to a person’s caste, yoga of action, devotion to a deity, and meditation
Most important commands Duty to a person’s caste is the most important Dharma is another word for duty Failure to follow dharma or other poor actions results in karma Too much bad karma results in reincarnation in a lower caste Good karma results in reincarnation in a higher caste and eventually Moksha Purpose of life Follow dharma Achieve Moksha
Art Very abstract style Majority of art was based on the Gods Initially was not understood outside of India Paintings and drawings of Gods were seen as monsters Architecture Incorporated human figures Symbolism is present in temples The central shrine is symbolism for the heart The towers represent the journey up towards heaven The land the temples are built on is carefully selected
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