Presentation on theme: "Cicero: Considered the greatest of ancient Roman Orators"— Presentation transcript:
1Cicero: Considered the greatest of ancient Roman Orators The Classical OrationDevised by Greek and Roman rhetoricians two thousand years ago for presenting cases in courts or making speeches to the senateCicero: Considered the greatest of ancient Roman OratorsAdapted from everything’s an argument by M. Gaines/2010
2Still Relevant TodayElements of classical oration still influence our attitudestoward persuasion,especially political speechesand debates, because theoration taught speakers andwriters to think of arguments as debates that have winners and losers.
3Sequence of Six PartsExordium (from Latin “ to urge forward”): the speaker/writer tries to win the attention and goodwill of an audience while introducing a subject or problemShow importance of the issue.Show how the issue affects the audience.Show how the issue affects everyone.Show how the issue affects the general good of the community.
4Narratio: Statement of the Case Narratio: The speaker/writer presents the facts of the case, explaining what happened when, who is involved, and so on. The narratio puts an argument in context
5PartitioPartitio: The speaker/writer divides up, or partitions, the subject, explaining what the claim is, what the key issues are, and in what order the subject will be treated
6Confirmatio: Argumentsthat Make the Case Confirmatio: The speaker/writer offers detailed support for the claim, using both logical reasoning and factual evidence
7Refutatio: Arguments constructed to anticipate opposing arguments Refutatio: The speaker/writer acknowledges and then refutes opposing claims or evidence
8Peroratio: The Conclusion Peroratio: The speaker/writer summarizes the case and moves the audience to action
9Declaration of Independence Identify the structure of the Declaration of Independence using the Classic Oration elementsUse the following format:Exordium: Begins, “When in the course…” and explains why the document is necessary…The Narratio follows… (quote from this section and explanation)Do this for the entire document – identifying the classical oration element and a brief quote from the section and an explanation