Presentation on theme: "Cicero: Considered the greatest of ancient Roman Orators"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cicero: Considered the greatest of ancient Roman Orators The Classical OrationDevised by Greek and Roman rhetoricians two thousand years ago for presenting cases in courts or making speeches to the senateCicero: Considered the greatest of ancient Roman OratorsAdapted from everything’s an argument by M. Gaines/2010
2 Still Relevant TodayElements of classical oration still influence our attitudestoward persuasion,especially political speechesand debates, because theoration taught speakers andwriters to think of arguments as debates that have winners and losers.
3 Sequence of Six PartsExordium (from Latin “ to urge forward”): the speaker/writer tries to win the attention and goodwill of an audience while introducing a subject or problemShow importance of the issue.Show how the issue affects the audience.Show how the issue affects everyone.Show how the issue affects the general good of the community.
4 Narratio: Statement of the Case Narratio: The speaker/writer presents the facts of the case, explaining what happened when, who is involved, and so on. The narratio puts an argument in context
5 PartitioPartitio: The speaker/writer divides up, or partitions, the subject, explaining what the claim is, what the key issues are, and in what order the subject will be treated
6 Confirmatio: Argumentsthat Make the Case Confirmatio: The speaker/writer offers detailed support for the claim, using both logical reasoning and factual evidence
7 Refutatio: Arguments constructed to anticipate opposing arguments Refutatio: The speaker/writer acknowledges and then refutes opposing claims or evidence
8 Peroratio: The Conclusion Peroratio: The speaker/writer summarizes the case and moves the audience to action
9 Declaration of Independence Identify the structure of the Declaration of Independence using the Classic Oration elementsUse the following format:Exordium: Begins, “When in the course…” and explains why the document is necessary…The Narratio follows… (quote from this section and explanation)Do this for the entire document – identifying the classical oration element and a brief quote from the section and an explanation