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What is my law firm worth? 18 th July 2013 Howard Hackney Jon Miller © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
What does make? Ask an accountant – what do you want it to make?! “Art not a science” Worth what a buyer will pay Wide variations not unusual Different values for different purposes Q&A session at conclusion © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
Proposed agenda Different types of practice Methodologies Goodwill & CFA WIP Tax Market conditions Achieving best “price” © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants Anything else?
Different types of practice Process driven, volume transactions −Profits less dependant on the skills of the staff and partner −A goodwill driver More traditional “collegiate” full service firm −Profits less identified with the business & more with its people −Is there goodwill at all? © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
Methodologies Net assets Earnings Others methodologies are probably unreliable © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
Net assets basis By far the easiest Adjust for market values Other liabilities e.g. PII run off, redundancy, close down costs WIP subject to CFA often not included Discounts will apply Goodwill – unlikely for a non-specialist “collegiate” practice © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
Earnings basis Goodwill = sale value less net assets Higher of net assets basis or earnings basis Maintainable profits X multiplier Variables –Maintainable –Exceptional items –Management reward –Weighting –Tax –Multiplier See template © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
Variables © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants Maintainable profit -Recent results -Major contracts -Legislation Exceptional items -Redundancy & reorganisation -Surplus on sale of assets Partners reward -“Salaries” for “doing the job” excluding risk return. -Open market salaries/bonuses -Difficult to determine Weighting -How many years? -Management accounts -What weighting? Tax -Multipliers are post tax -What tax rate to use?
What multiplier? © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants THE most difficult Sector, size & economy BDO PCPI 13.3 up from 11.5 FTSE non financials 9.8 Smaller co. bigger discount Rule of thumb 4-8 Even this perhaps optimistic in this climate
BDO index © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
Goodwill and CFA WIP © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants Goodwill -Excess of value over net assets -Genuine goodwill is unusual – especially for collegiate firms CFA WIP -Usually called goodwill as on sale likely to be taxed at 10% -Time records usually unreliable -Eliminate “dead” cases -Number of cases X average value achieved % 50% (to represent ½ way through) -Apply a discount (see later on market conditions) -Role of specialist valuers
What’s going on? © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
What’s going on? – earnings based deals © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants Based on real life deals we have seen Multiplier expected by HMRC approx 3 x pre tax profits or 80% to 100% of fee income = just under 4 x post tax profits A specialist firm - Pre tax 2 – 4.5 = 2.7 to 6.0 post tax - An AMC acquisition: – all out of future profits of target
What’s going on? – May 2013 © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants Slater & Gordon acquire Goodmans, Simpson Millar and Taylor Vinter Mixture of PI, volume and mainstream legal services Collectively valued at £23m Pre-tax profits disclosed as £5.2m - £6.5m Assuming 25% tax, earnings multiple range is from 4.7x to 5.9x No details as to how much payable in cash and how much in shares or other consideration.
What’s going on? – asset based deals © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants CFA WIP -Realisations 35% to 75% -Upfront 60% best – most will not take the risk Debtors – usually on collections less 10% admin fee Fixed assets – 10% of book value Unrecognised liabilities -Dilapidations -PII run off -TUPE Watch solvency of acquirer Considerable market uncertainty : especially PI firms = opportunities
Tax © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants Entrepreneurs relief (ER) -10% upto £10m -One year ownership of at least 5% -Employee or owner -Sale of business (so just of property not eligible) Goodwill and CFA WIP called goodwill -ER available at 10% -Non connected Limited company acquirer obtains tax relief on write off Limited company -Can sell shares or assets -Buyer usually prefers assets and will usually pay more -Seller usually prefers shares and will usually accept less
Achieving best price (1) © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants Price is only one element but is it a merger or sale? Use a lead adviser -Independence -Confidential approaches -Markey knowledge -Play “hard ball” The process -Create a competitive market -Prepare Information Memorandum -Identify targets -The process Six to nine months timescale
Achieving best price (2) © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants The IM -A sales document -Paints the picture with adjusted results -MUST be available before market approaches -Aids in market value assessment -Aids negotiating position and SWOT -Do not indicate expected price -What you want to know about “them” Identifying targets -Blanket approach dangerous -Use “lead adviser” -Perhaps a doz. down to final 2 or 3 Stage 1 to indicative offers -Initial personal approach -Taster -NDA -Issue numbered IM -Meet targets – two way exchange -Indicative offers Stage 2 to formal agreement -Assess offers -Clarify & negotiate -Preferred party – exclusivity -DD and final negotiation -Signed agreement
What is my law firm worth? 18 th July 2013 Howard Hackney Jon Miller Any questions? © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants
Firscroft, Firs Lane, Appleton, Cheshire WA4 5LD Howard Hackney // Partner © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants Jon Miller // Associate
What is my law firm worth? 30 October 2012 Paul Sharpe Howard Hackney © Howard Hackney LLP // Chartered Accountants.
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