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CAPITAL ASSETS CHAPTER 10. Capital assets are long-lived assets that are used in the operations of a business and are not intended for sale to customers.

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Presentation on theme: "CAPITAL ASSETS CHAPTER 10. Capital assets are long-lived assets that are used in the operations of a business and are not intended for sale to customers."— Presentation transcript:


2 Capital assets are long-lived assets that are used in the operations of a business and are not intended for sale to customers. Capital assets are subdivided into two classes: 1. Tangible (with physical substance) 2. Intangible (without physical substance) CAPITAL ASSETS

3 TANGIBLE CAPITAL ASSETS Tangible capital assets include: property, plant and equipment Land Land improvements Buildings Equipment natural resources such as mineral deposits, oil and gas reserves, and timber

4 INTANGIBLE CAPITAL ASSETS Intangible capital assets provide future benefits through the special rights and privileges they convey. Examples: Patents, copyrights, sports contracts, and trademarks © 

5 Capital assets are recorded at cost in accordance with the cost principle. Cost consists of all expenditures necessary to 1) acquire the asset and 2) make it ready for its intended use. These costs include purchase price, freight costs, and installation costs. DETERMINING THE COST OF CAPITAL ASSETS

6 Cost is measured by the cash paid in a cash transaction or by the cash equivalent price when non-cash assets are used in payment. The cash equivalent price is equal to the fair market value of the asset given up or the fair market value of the asset received, whichever is more clearly determinable. MEASUREMENT OF CAPITAL ASSET COST

7 The cost of Land includes: 1. purchase price 2. closing costs such as title and legal fees 3.accrued property taxes and other liens on the land assumed by the purchaser All necessary costs incurred in making land ready for its intended use are debited to the Land account. LANDLAND

8 The cost of land improvements includes all expenditures necessary to make the improvements ready for their intended use, such as: 1. parking lots 2. fencing 3. landscaping 4. lighting Lighting Parking Lot LAND IMPROVEMENTS

9 The cost of buildings includes all necessary expenditures relating to the purchase or construction of a building. When a building is purchased, such costs include the purchase price and closing costs. Costs to make the building ready for its intended use consist of expenditures for remodelling and replacing or repairing the roof, floors, wiring, and plumbing. When a new building is constructed, cost consists of the contract price plus payments for architects’ fees, building permits, interest payments during construction, and excavation costs. BUILDINGSBUILDINGS

10 The cost of equipment consists of the cash purchase price, freight charges, and insurance paid by the purchaser during transit. Cost includes all expenditures required in assembling, installing, and testing the unit. EQUIPMENTEQUIPMENT

11 BASKET PURCHASE Allocate cost of a group of assets in proportion to relative fair market values.

12 Amortization is the process of allocating to expense the cost of a capital asset over its useful (service) life in a rational and systematic manner. Cost allocation is designed to provide for the proper matching of expenses with revenues in accordance with the matching principle. During an asset’s life, its usefulness may decline because of wear and tear or obsolescence. Recognition of amortization does not result in the accumulation of cash for the replacement of the asset. Land is the only capital asset that is not amortized. AMORTIZATIONAMORTIZATION


14 AMORTIZATION METHODS Three methods of recognizing amortization are: 1. Straight-line, 2. Units of activity, and 3. Declining-balance. Each method is acceptable under generally accepted accounting principles. Management selects the method that is appropriate for their company. Once a method is chosen, it should be applied consistently.


16 Amortization is constant for each year of the asset's useful life

17 DECLINING-BALANCE METHOD The calculation of periodic amortization is based on a declining net book value (cost less accumulated amortization) of the asset. The amortization rate remains constant from year to year, but the net book value to which the rate is applied declines each year. Net Book Value (at beginning of year) Straight-line Rate (x declining balance rate multiplier, if any) Amortization Expense

18 DECLINING-BALANCE METHOD Accelerated methods result in more amortization in early years and less in later years

19 UNITS-OF-ACTIVITY METHOD To use the units-of-activity method, 1) the total units of activity for the entire useful life are estimated, 2) the amount is divided into amortizable cost to calculate the amortization cost per unit, and 3) the amortization cost per unit is then applied to the units of activity during the year to calculate the annual amortization. Amortized Cost Total Units of Activity Amortizable Cost per Unit Units of Activity during the Year Amortization Expense Amortizable Cost per Unit

20 UNITS-OF-ACTIVITY METHOD Useful life is expressed in terms of total units of production or activity expected from the asset

21 If annual amortization is inadequate or excessive, a change in the periodic amount should be made. When a change is made, 1. there is no correction of previously recorded amortization expense and 2. amortization expense for current and future years is revised. REVISING PERIODIC AMORTIZATION Revised amortization expense = Net book value at time of revision – revised salvage value Remaining useful life

22 Ordinary repairs are expenditures to maintain the operating efficiency and expected productive life of the capital asset. They are debited to Repairs Expense as incurred and are often referred to as operating expenditures. Additions and improvements are costs incurred to increase the operating efficiency, productive capacity, or expected useful life of the capital asset. 1. Expenditures are usually material in amount and occur infrequently during the period of ownership. 2. Since additions and improvements increase the company’s investment in productive facilities, they are debits to the capital asset affected, and are referred to as capital expenditures. EXPENDITURES DURING USEFUL LIFE

23 Capital assets may be disposed of by a) retirement b) sale, or c) exchange CAPITAL ASSET DISPOSALS

24 Amortization for the fraction of the year to the date of disposal must be recorded Amortization expensexxx Accumulated amortization xxx Calculate net book value Net book value = Cost - accumulated amortization 1 2

25 CAPITAL ASSET DISPOSALS Compare net book value to sale proceeds Proceeds > Net book value = gain (cr.) Proceeds < Net book value = loss (dr.) Record disposition, removing cost of asset and accumulated amortization, and record proceeds (if any) and gain or loss on disposition (if any) 3 4 Cashxxx Accumulated amortizationxxx Capital assetxxx Gain on disposalxxx

26 Natural resources consist of standing timber and underground deposits of oil, gas, and minerals. Natural resources, frequently called wasting assets, have two distinguishing characteristics: 1. They are physically extracted in operations. 2. They are replaceable only by an act of nature. NATURAL RESOURCES

27 The acquisition cost of a natural resource is the cash or cash equivalent price necessary to acquire the resource and prepare it for its intended use. If the resource is already discovered, cost is the price paid for the property. ACQUISITION COST

28 AMORTIZATIONAMORTIZATION The units-of-activity method is generally used to calculate amortization, because periodic amortization generally is a function of the units extracted during the year.

29 ILLUSTRATION 10-23 FORMULA TO CALCULATE AMORTIZATION EXPENSE Amortizable Cost = (Cost – Residual Value + Restoration Costs) Total Estimated Units Amortization Cost per Unit Amortization Cost per Unit Number of Units Extracted and Sold Amortization Expense

30 ILLUSTRATION 10-24 STATEMENT PRESENTATION OF AMORTIZATION Accumulated Amortization, a contra asset account, is deducted from the cost of the natural resource in the balance sheet as follows:

31 Intangible assets are rights, privileges, and competitive advantages that result from the ownership of long-lived assets that do not possess physical substance. INTANGIBLE ASSETS

32 In general, accounting for intangible assets parallels the accounting for capital assets. Intangible assets are: 1. recorded at cost; 2. written off over useful life in a rational and systematic manner; 3. at disposal, net book value is eliminated and gain or loss, if any, is recorded. ACCOUNTING FOR INTANGIBLE ASSETS

33 Amortizable intangible assets Have defined lives Allocation of the cost to expense over the shorter of Useful (economic) life Legal life Straight-line method of amortization used AMORTIZATION

34 UNAMORTIZABLE INTANGIBLE ASSETS Indefinite useful lives Do not amortize Test for impairment

35 TYPES OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS Patents Copyrights Trademarks and Trade Names Franchises and Licenses Goodwill Research and Development Costs

36 PATENTS Exclusive right to manufacture, sell or control granted for 20 years Legal costs of protecting a patent in an infringement suit are added to the Patent account and amortized over the remaining life of the patent

37 Copyrights are granted by the federal government giving the owner the exclusive right to reproduce and sell artistic or published work Copyrights extend for the life of the creator plus 50 years COPYRIGHTS

38 TRADE MARKS/NAMES Word, phrase, jingle or symbol that distinguishes or identifies a particular enterprise or product If indefinite life, do not amortize. Test for impairment

39 FRANCHISES Contractual agreement under which the franchiser grants the franchisee the right To sell certain products To render specific services or to use certain trademarks or trade names, usually within a designated geographic area

40 LICENSES Operating rights permit the enterprise to use public property in performing its service (i.e. the use of airwaves for radio or TV broadcasting)

41 GOODWILL Goodwill represents favourable attributes that relate to a business enterprise Record only in an exchange transaction that involves the purchase of an entire business Goodwill equals the excess of cost over the fair market value of the net assets (assets less liabilities) acquired Goodwill is not written off as it has an unlimited useful life. It must be tested regularly for impairment.

42 Research costs–record as an expense when incurred Development costs–capitalize if associated with an identifiable, feasible product. Otherwise, expense RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS

43 In the balance sheet, property, plant and equipment, natural resources, and intangible assets are often combined under the heading Capital Assets. There should be disclosure of the balances in the major classes of assets and accumulated amortization of major classes of assets or of assets in total. The amortization methods used should be described and the amount of amortization expense for the period disclosed. FINANCIAL STATEMENT PRESENTATION

44 ASSET TURNOVER RATIO The ratio that shows how efficiently a company uses its assets to generate sales is the asset turnover ratio. Net Average Assets Sales Total Assets Turnover  =

45 RETURN ON ASSETS The ratio that shows the profitability of assets used in the earnings process is the return on assets. Net Average Return on IncomeTotal Assets Assets  =

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