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The Eisenhower Era  1952-1960.  The Eisenhower Era  Ike projected an image of a "non- political" president.  Immensely popular grandfather figure.

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Presentation on theme: "The Eisenhower Era  1952-1960.  The Eisenhower Era  Ike projected an image of a "non- political" president.  Immensely popular grandfather figure."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Eisenhower Era 

2  The Eisenhower Era  Ike projected an image of a "non- political" president.  Immensely popular grandfather figure.

3  McCarthy Hearings  McCarthy begins hearings into the existence of Communists in the Army.  George Marshall is denounced.

4 Army - McCarthy Hearings

5  Eisenhower allows McCarthy to dictate State Department personnel policy and does not condemn him.

6  McCarthy is later censured by the Senate -- many Asia experts will be fired as communist sympathizers.

7  Eisenhower Republicanism  Eisenhower pledges a philosophy of “Dynamic Conservatism”

8  He halted the growth of the TVA and condemned free polio vaccines as “socialized medicine.”

9  called a halt to massive military build-up.

10  Many New Deal programs were actually extended -- such as Social Security.

11  Eisenhower also called for the creation of the Interstate highway system which led to increased suburbanization.

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13 The Burbs

14  only 3 of his eight years will see balanced budgets and he will incur the largest peacetime budget deficit until the Reagan administration.

15 n Economic troubles will lead to the Democrats regaining Congress in 1954 and n The CIO merging with the AFL to form the AFL-CIO.

16  The Cold War Wanes  Armistice in Korea - cease- fire declared at Panmunjom - short of victory.

17  Stalin dies in March, Khrushchev gains power in USSR, denounces Stalin and seeks peaceful coexistence.

18  Brinkmanship  Sec. of State John Foster Dulles vows to "roll back" Communism  follows policy of brinkmanship - vows massive retaliation.

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20  “ New Look” defense.  Called for more use of airforce and nuclear weapons  “more bang for the buck” - it would deter the spread of communism

21  Eisenhower stands firm  French lose Battle of Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam to communists under Ho Chi Minh

22  Geneva Conference divides country at 17th parallel - elections fall through and US backs Ngo Dinh Diem in the south - US forms SEATO treaty.

23  New Crises add to tensions  Hungarian Revolt (1956)- demonstration in Hungary leads to open revolt - Soviets invade and crush rebellion.  American lack of reaction points out the problems with the “New Look”

24 The Red Tanks

25  Crisis in the Middle East  Suez Crisis (1956) - Israel, France and Britain invade Egypt to take back canal - US intervenes fearing US - Soviet conflict.

26  Congress agrees to Eisenhower Doctrine - US will send troops to Middle East to halt communist aggression.  US sends troops to Lebanon to keep peace in Civil War.

27  Civil Rights  Congress and president refused to move on civil rights - Earl Warren’s court took initiative.

28  Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas reversed the “separate but equal” doctrine of Plessy v Ferguson  segregated schools are “inherently unequal”

29 “Separate but Equal”

30  Southern schools refused to desegregate - put up “massive resistance”  Eisenhower did not endorse the decision.

31  Civil Rights Confrontations  Dec Rosa Parks refuses to move to back of bus in Montgomery, AL.

32  Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. organizes bus boycott.

33 Rosa Parks “Thank you Sister Rosa. You are the spark that started our freedom movement. Thank you sister Rosa Parks.” -Neville Bros.

34 Dr. King Arrested in Montgomery

35  Sept Gov. Orval Faubus mobilized the Arkansas National Guard to stop 9 black children from attending Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas.  Eisenhower sent troops to escort the children.

36 Little Rock

37  1957 Civil Rights Act - set up a Civil Rights Commission to investigate civil rights violations.

38   The Space Race  Oct Soviets launch Sputnik satellite - Eisenhower declares the little basketball should not cause “one iota” of concern.

39  It does!!  the “Space Race” begins

40  Race to beat the Russians  First American attempts to launch missiles end in disaster - - “Kaputniks”

41  National Defense and Education Act - - loans to students and spending on science education.

42  Foreign Policy  Berlin Crisis Soviets give 6 month deadline for western powers to leave Berlin.  Eisenhower refuses to budge and Khrushchev backs down.

43  Dulles says “we looked Russia right in the eye and they blinked”

44 Goodwill Diplomacy  Eisenhower goes on “Goodwill Tour” of Europe, India and later Latin America.  Khrushchev comes to America - meets Ike at Camp David.

45 Khrushchev in America

46 Paris Summit n Paris “Summit Conference” called for May 1960  American U2 spy plane shot down over Russia on the eve of Paris Summit. What’s so funny?

47 Plausible Deniability?

48 Nixon goes to USSR  Nixon has his “Kitchen Debate” with Khrushchev in `59.  The “New” Nixon emerges as a world statesman.

49  More Trouble in Latin America  CIA led a coup that overthrew a leftist government in Guatemala in 1954.

50  Nixon goes on a goodwill tour of Latin America - attacked by mobs.

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52 Fidel Castro  Castro overthrows Bautista in Cuba - becomes Soviet satellite - Washington cuts relations with Cuba in `61.

53 Eisenhower Retires n Eisenhower put to rest fears of presidents being “lame ducks” because of the 22nd amendment. n He was more vigorous and active in his second term and retired as a very popular president.

54 Ike’s Farewell Address n In his farewell address he warned the country against the rising power of the “military- industrial complex.”

55 Fifties Culture

56 Television

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58 Marlon Brando

59 James Dean

60 Audrey Hepburn

61 Marilyn Monroe

62 America’s love for Cars

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64 Drive In Culture

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66 Cult of Conformity

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68 The Beat Generation Jack Kerouac and Neal Cassady “On the Road”

69 Allen Ginsburg


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