Presentation on theme: "The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960. The Eisenhower Era Ike projected an image of a "non- political" president. Immensely popular grandfather figure."— Presentation transcript:
The Eisenhower Era 1952-1960
The Eisenhower Era Ike projected an image of a "non- political" president. Immensely popular grandfather figure.
McCarthy Hearings McCarthy begins hearings into the existence of Communists in the Army. George Marshall is denounced.
Army - McCarthy Hearings
Eisenhower allows McCarthy to dictate State Department personnel policy and does not condemn him.
McCarthy is later censured by the Senate -- many Asia experts will be fired as communist sympathizers.
Eisenhower Republicanism Eisenhower pledges a philosophy of “Dynamic Conservatism”
He halted the growth of the TVA and condemned free polio vaccines as “socialized medicine.”
called a halt to massive military build-up.
Many New Deal programs were actually extended -- such as Social Security.
Eisenhower also called for the creation of the Interstate highway system which led to increased suburbanization.
only 3 of his eight years will see balanced budgets and he will incur the largest peacetime budget deficit until the Reagan administration.
n Economic troubles will lead to the Democrats regaining Congress in 1954 and n The CIO merging with the AFL to form the AFL-CIO.
The Cold War Wanes Armistice in Korea - cease- fire declared at Panmunjom - short of victory.
Stalin dies in March, 1953 - Khrushchev gains power in USSR, denounces Stalin and seeks peaceful coexistence.
Brinkmanship Sec. of State John Foster Dulles vows to "roll back" Communism follows policy of brinkmanship - vows massive retaliation.
“ New Look” defense. Called for more use of airforce and nuclear weapons “more bang for the buck” - it would deter the spread of communism
Eisenhower stands firm 1954 - French lose Battle of Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam to communists under Ho Chi Minh
Geneva Conference divides country at 17th parallel - elections fall through and US backs Ngo Dinh Diem in the south - US forms SEATO treaty.
New Crises add to tensions Hungarian Revolt (1956)- demonstration in Hungary leads to open revolt - Soviets invade and crush rebellion. American lack of reaction points out the problems with the “New Look”
The Red Tanks
Crisis in the Middle East Suez Crisis (1956) - Israel, France and Britain invade Egypt to take back canal - US intervenes fearing US - Soviet conflict.
1957 - Congress agrees to Eisenhower Doctrine - US will send troops to Middle East to halt communist aggression. 1958 - US sends troops to Lebanon to keep peace in Civil War.
Civil Rights Congress and president refused to move on civil rights - Earl Warren’s court took initiative.
1954 - Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas reversed the “separate but equal” doctrine of Plessy v Ferguson segregated schools are “inherently unequal”
“Separate but Equal”
Southern schools refused to desegregate - put up “massive resistance” Eisenhower did not endorse the decision.
Civil Rights Confrontations Dec. 1955 - Rosa Parks refuses to move to back of bus in Montgomery, AL.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. organizes bus boycott.
Rosa Parks “Thank you Sister Rosa. You are the spark that started our freedom movement. Thank you sister Rosa Parks.” -Neville Bros.
Dr. King Arrested in Montgomery
Sept. 1957 - Gov. Orval Faubus mobilized the Arkansas National Guard to stop 9 black children from attending Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas. Eisenhower sent troops to escort the children.
1957 Civil Rights Act - set up a Civil Rights Commission to investigate civil rights violations.
The Space Race Oct. 1957 - Soviets launch Sputnik satellite - Eisenhower declares the little basketball should not cause “one iota” of concern.
It does!! the “Space Race” begins
Race to beat the Russians First American attempts to launch missiles end in disaster - - “Kaputniks”
National Defense and Education Act - - loans to students and spending on science education.
Foreign Policy Berlin Crisis 1958 - Soviets give 6 month deadline for western powers to leave Berlin. Eisenhower refuses to budge and Khrushchev backs down.
Dulles says “we looked Russia right in the eye and they blinked”
Goodwill Diplomacy Eisenhower goes on “Goodwill Tour” of Europe, India and later Latin America. Khrushchev comes to America - meets Ike at Camp David.
Khrushchev in America
Paris Summit n Paris “Summit Conference” called for May 1960 American U2 spy plane shot down over Russia on the eve of Paris Summit. What’s so funny?
Nixon goes to USSR Nixon has his “Kitchen Debate” with Khrushchev in `59. The “New” Nixon emerges as a world statesman.
More Trouble in Latin America CIA led a coup that overthrew a leftist government in Guatemala in 1954.
Nixon goes on a goodwill tour of Latin America - attacked by mobs.
Fidel Castro 1959 - Castro overthrows Bautista in Cuba - becomes Soviet satellite - Washington cuts relations with Cuba in `61.
Eisenhower Retires n Eisenhower put to rest fears of presidents being “lame ducks” because of the 22nd amendment. n He was more vigorous and active in his second term and retired as a very popular president.
Ike’s Farewell Address n In his farewell address he warned the country against the rising power of the “military- industrial complex.”
America’s love for Cars
Drive In Culture
Cult of Conformity
The Beat Generation Jack Kerouac and Neal Cassady “On the Road”