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McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 Chapter 3 Building Goodwill   Goodwill   You-Attitude   Positive Emphasis   Tone, Power, and Politeness   Bias-Free Language

3 Goodwill  Build goodwill through  You-attitude  Positive emphasis  Bias-free language 3-3

4 You-Attitude  Looks at things from audience’s viewpoint  Emphasizes what audience wants to know  Respects audience’s intelligence  Protects audience’s ego 3-4

5 Five Ways to Create You-Attitude 1.Talk about audience, not yourself. 2.Refer to audience’s request or order. 3.Don’t talk about feelings. 4.In positive situations, use you more often than I. Use we when it includes the audience. 5.In negative situations, avoid you. 3-5

6 Talk About Audience, Not Yourself  Tell how message affects the audience  Don’t mention communicator’s work or generosity  Stress what audience wants to know Yourself 3-6

7 Talk About Audience: Examples  Lacks you-attitude  I negotiated an agreement with Apex Rent-a-Car that gives you a discount.  We shipped your May 21 order today.  Contains you-attitude  You now get a 20% discount when you rent a car from Apex.  The three coin sets you ordered will ship today and should reach you by June

8 Refer to Audience’s Request or Order Specifically  Make specific references, not generic  Name content of order for person or small business  Cite purchase order numbers for customers that order often 3-8

9 Refer to Audience’s Request or Order Specifically: Examples  Lacks you-attitude  We shipped your order today.  Contains you-attitude  The 500 red and gray sweatshirts you ordered were shipped today and will reach you early next week.  Your P.O N shipped on 11/04 and will arrive within five business days. 3-9

10 Don’t Talk About Feelings  Don’t talk about audience’s feelings  Don’t predict audience’s response  Only express feelings to  Offer sympathy  Congratulate 3-10

11 Don’t Talk About Feelings: Examples  Lacks you-attitude  We are happy to give you a credit line of $2,000.  You will be happy to learn that your reimbursement request has been approved.  Contains you-attitude  You now have a $2,000 credit line with VISA.  Your reimbursement request has been approved. 3-11

12 In Positive Situations, Use You More Often Than I. Use We If It Includes the Audience  Use you in positive situations  Avoid I in printed text  Avoid we if it excludes the audience YOU 3-12

13 In Positive Situations, Use You More Often Than I. Use We If It Includes the Audience: Examples  Lacks you-attitude  We provide exercise equipment to all employees.  I will schedule a due date that works best for my schedule.  Contains you-attitude  You have access to the latest exercise equipment as a full-time employee of RAC Inc.  We will schedule the due date after we meet. 3-13

14 Avoid You in Negative Situations  Protect audience’s ego  Avoid assigning blame  Use passive verbs  Use impersonal style  Talk about things, not people 3-14

15 Avoid You in Negative Situations: Examples  Lacks you-attitude  You failed to sign your flexible spending account form.  You made no allowance for inflation in your estimate.  Contains you-attitude  Your flexible spending account form was not signed.  The estimate makes no allowance for inflation. impersonal passive 3-15

16 You-Attitude Beyond Sentence Level  Be complete  Anticipate and answer questions  Show why info is important  Show how the subject affects audience  Put most important info first  Arrange info to meet audience’s needs  Use headings and lists 3-16

17 Positive Emphasis  Way of looking at situations  Focuses on the positive  Create positive emphasis through  Words  Information  Organization  Layout Half full or half empty? 3-17

18 Five Ways to Create Positive Emphasis 1.Avoid negative words 2.Beware of hidden negatives 3.Focus on what audience can do, not limitations 4.Justify negative information by giving reason or linking to audience benefit 5.Put negative information in the middle and present it compactly 3-18

19 Avoid Negative Words: Examples  Contains Negatives  Never fail to return library books on time.  Because you failed to pay your bill, your account is delinquent.  Omits Negatives (Better)  Always return library books on time.  The account is past due. 3-19

20 Beware of hidden negatives: Examples  Contains Negatives  I hope this is the information you wanted.  Please be patient as we switch to the automated system.  Omits Negatives (Better)  Enclosed is a brochure about joining the MI Retiree Association.  You’ll be able to get information instantly about any house on the market once the automated system is in place. If you have questions during the transition, please call Sheryl Brown. 3-20

21 Focus on What the Audience Can Do: Example  Negative  You will not get your refund check until you submit your official grade report at the end of the semester.  Better  To receive your refund check, submit your official grade report at the end of the semester. 3-21

22 Justify Negative Information by Giving Reason or Linking to Audience Benefit: Example  Negative  You cannot take vacation days without prior approval from your supervisor.  Better  To ensure that everyone’s duties will be covered, submit your first and second choices of vacation time to your supervisor by May

23 Put the Negative in the Middle and Present it Compactly  Put in middle of message and paragraph  Don’t put at bottom of page 1  Don’t list with bulleted or numbered lists  Make it short as you can  Give it only once Negative 3-23

24 Tone, Power, and Politeness  Tone – implied attitude of the communicator toward the audience  Good tone  Businesslike, not stiff  Friendly, not phony  Confident, not arrogant  Polite, not groveling 3-24

25 Levels of Politeness: Examples  Highest: Would you be able to complete your report by Friday?  High: Progress reports should be turned in by Friday.  Mid: Please turn in your progress report by Friday.  Low: Turn in your progress report by Friday. 3-25

26 Bias-Free Language  Words that do not discriminate on basis of  Sex  Age  Ethnicity  Race  Physical condition  Religion 3-26

27 Making Language Nonsexist  Treat both sexes neutrally  Businessman = Business person  Woman doctor = Doctor  Manning = Staffing  Don’t assume everyone is heterosexual or married 3-27

28 Making Language Nonsexist, continued…  Avoid sexist job titles  Actress  Repairman  Chairman  Salesman  Foreman  Waitress 3-28

29 Making Language Nonsexist, continued…  Use Ms. as courtesy title for women  Use professional title instead (if any)  Use Miss or Mrs. if audience prefers it  Determine proper courtesy title for letter address and salutation  Omit sexist generic pronouns 3-29

30 Making Language Nonracist and Nonagist  Give age or race only if relevant  Refer to a group by term it prefers  Don’t suggest competence is rare:  She is an asset to her race.  He is an active 83-year-old. 3-30

31 Talking about People with Disabilities & Diseases  People-first language — Name person first; add disability or disease if relevant  Don’t imply that disability or disease defines person  Don’t use negative terms, unless audience prefers them (deaf vs. hard of hearing) 3-31

32 Choosing Bias-Free Photos/Illustrations  Check visuals for possible bias  Do they show people of both sexes and all races?  Is there a sprinkling of various kinds of people?  It is OK to have individual pictures that have just one sex or one race?  Check relationships and authority figures as well as numbers. 3-32


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