Presentation on theme: "Agenda – KINE 3510 Week 4 In the News: 2016 Summer Olympics - Rio de Janeiro; Forbes franchise valuations ; NFL labour situation Sport Marketing and the."— Presentation transcript:
Agenda – KINE 3510 Week 4 In the News: 2016 Summer Olympics - Rio de Janeiro; Forbes franchise valuations ; NFL labour situation Sport Marketing and the Law –Interview with Paresh Trivedi, Attorney at Law, Proskauer Rose LLP Public Relations Sport Marketing and Popular Culture: A Synergistic Relationship –Branded segment (LeBron James documentary) –Spotlight: WTA, NBA, WWE –In-class exercise: “Sexying” up the PGA Recap
The Legal Aspects of Sport Marketing
Objectives To introduce the key legal concepts and issues that affect the marketing of the sport product To inform sport marketers about the need, and the methods, to protect intellectual property associated with the creation of a sport product or event, or with ideas developed out of sport sponsorship and licensing programs To examine the legal limits of sport marketing and promotion so sport marketers can avoid legal liability
What Is Intellectual Property? Primary goal of intellectual property law is to reward invention, ingenuity, and creativity in an effort to maintain an open and competitive marketplace. It is made up of three areas: 1.Trademarks 1.Protect unique words, names, symbols and slogans 2. Copyrights protect original works of authorship 3. Patents protect inventions (new designs and processes) Trademarks, copyrights and patents can be licensed, but use without permission is infringement
Trademark Law A trademark is a word, name, symbol, or device used by a person, generally a manufacturer or merchant, to identify and distinguish its goods from those manufactured and sold by others, and to indicate the source of the goods (see endnote 5 in book). Types of trademarks: –Trade dress –Service mark e.g World Series, NCAA Final Four –Collective mark e.g. NHLPA logo
Overview of Trademark Law: Purposes Trademarks identify the source or origin. Trademarks protect consumers from confusion or deception. A trademark is used to designate a consistent level of quality. A trademark represents the goodwill of the owner’s products or services. Trademarks signify a substantial advertising investment.
Types of Trademarks Strength relates to distinctiveness and level of protections: Fanciful: Distinctive Arbitrary: Common term associated with entity Suggestive: Connotes something about product Descriptive: Commonly used word or phrase that is difficult, although not impossible, to protect Generic: Commonly used word or phrase that is never entitled to trademark protection
Trademark Infringement Traditional trademark infringement: Confusion or mistake or used to deceive False designation of origin Dilution e.g. Tony LaRussa vs. Twitter
Determining Trademark Infringement The strength of the trademark The degree of similarity The similarity of the products involved The market channels involved The distribution channels involved The intent of the defendant in adopting the trademark The sophistication of the potential consumers The evidence of actual confusion e.g. United States Olympic Committee vs. Olympic Supply
Other Issues Related to Infringement Defenses to Trademark Infringement: Abandonment Fair use defense Genericness Functionality e.g. Robert Welsh vs. The Big Ten Conference Cybersquatting –e.g. Agassi Enterprises Inc. vs. andre-agassi.com
Ambush Marketing When a company capitalizes on the goodwill of an event by using tactics to imply an official association with that sport event The larger and more popular the event, the more often ambush marketing arises
Copyright Law and Sport Marketing Copyrights, for instance, protect the music that is played during games and requires sport marketers to seek approval through ASCAP, which protects musicians’ copyrights in their works.
Works of Authorship That Are Protected Literary works, such as books and stories Musical works, including any accompanying words Dramatic works, including any accompanying music Pantomimes and choreographic works Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works Motion pictures and other audiovisual works Sound recordings Architectural works
Copyright Act Grants a Copyright Owner the Right To reproduce and distribute copies or sound recordings of the copyrighted work to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending To prepare derivative works based on the copyrighted work To perform the copyrighted work publicly (literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works; pantomimes; motion pictures, and the like) To display the copyrighted work publicly (literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works; pantomimes; and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work) To perform the copyrighted work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission (sound recordings)
Copyright Infringement 1.The purpose of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes 2.The nature (character) of the copyrighted work 3.The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole 4.The effect of the use on the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work Copyright infringement occurs when someone makes an unauthorized use of a copyrighted work. Courts consider four factors when determining whether copyright infringement has occurred:
Defenses to Copyright Infringement The fair use doctrine: Criticism Comment News reporting Teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use) Scholarship Research e.g. Showing Animals respect and Kindness (SHARK) vs. Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association
Patents May be granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement. A patent cannot be granted for a mere idea, only for the actual invention or complete description of it (see endnote 106 in book). Patent lasts 20 years. After patent runs out, anyone can use technology or make product. e.g. Renata Marcinkowska vs. IMG Worldwide Inc.
The Right of Publicity and Invasion of Privacy The right of privacy protects against intrusion on one’s seclusion, the misappropriation of one’s name or likeness, unreasonable publicity, and placing one in a false light. The right of publicity prevents the unauthorized commercial use of an individual’s name, likeness, or other recognizable aspects of his or her persona. e.g. World B. Free vs. Nike Inc.
Emerging Issues Global protection of intellectual property Ownership of “real time” information and player statistics
Objectives To understand public relations and its role in positioning and in the formulation of the marketing mix To recognize the importance of effective community relations programming in product positioning and effective marketing efforts To understand the role, scope, and influence of the media and how that role can be used in conjunction with public and community relations programming to alter perceptions and influence public opinion and support
Defining Public Relations “Public relations is the management function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with the public interest, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance” (see endnote 3 in book). It is “the profitable integration of an organization's new and continuing relationship with stakeholders, including customers, by managing all communications contacts with the organization that create and protect the reputation of the organization” (see endnote 4 in book).
Public Relations Formula Public relations = Media relations + Community relations
Functions of PR Department Planning campaigns Facilitating interviews Disseminating press releases Compiling statistical information and other helpful promotion information Holding press conferences The ultimate goal for the public relations department is to cultivate a positive image of the company by proactively seeking and accommodating favorable opportunities in the press through these means:
Public Relations Specialist Skills Building Relationships Communication Creating the Public Relations Plan Making the Pitch Managing the Story Talking Points Crisis Management
Media Relations Reactive: Responds to inquiries. Proactive: The point of initiation is the organization rather than some external entity. Interactive: Develops mutually beneficial relationships with the media and assists the media on a variety of issues.
Three Distinct Forms of Community Relations 1.Those initiated by players 2.Those initiated by teams or institutions 3.Those initiated by leagues or governing bodies
Public Relations Integrated With Marketing Interactive marketing communications strategy that seeks to create a variety of media designed to convey the philosophies, goals, and objectives of an organization to identified groups and publics for the purpose of developing a relationship based on comprehension, interest, and support
Public Relations Functions Provide information and general communication (to consumers, shareholders, suppliers, competitors, government agencies, and the general public). Inform and communicate. Shape and enhance image. Promote employee relations. Gain political or popular support. Recruit and develop business. Launch new products or innovations. Generate and collect feedback. Cope with crisis.
Media Impact on Sport Public Relations: Sport in the Daily Mix of Life Athletes away from the playing field: Ball four Sport as entertainment: Monday Night Football Expanded sport coverage: ESPN
Strategic Planning and Public Relations Strategic planning is a philosophy of management based on identifying purpose, objectives, and desired results; establishing a realistic program for obtaining these results; and evaluating the performance. Public relations initiatives should be a part of the strategic plan, and public relations professionals should have input regarding the development of the plan.
Sport Marketing and Popular Culture: A Synergistic Relationship
Experiential DNA Sports Aesthetic Technological Cultural/ Political Touch, sense, feel Dramatic Economic Consumers Producers Politicians Media Competitors Fans
Interface Value Represents a brand’s ability to connect to multiple audiences The more it resonates the higher the interface value, the more successful the entertainment brand It is the material connection between the brand and the experience Long tail -> the ongoing demand for the interface value the brand generates Focusing on the long tail helps secure the future success of the entertainment brand –e.g. various MLSEL ventures What strong examples exist in sport?
Criteria for Strong Interface Value Rich and consistent history (characters, narratives, archetypes) Story that is adaptable to different opinions and interpretations One that resonates with my own life Experiential adaptability Star power (personified interface value) Previous history of brand success in a different market Mayhem and mystery surrounding the production process Production technologies as they feed the story and its characters An effective blending of all these elements
Authenticity Connection to athletes Hard to generate, manage and prolong Genuine original true performer vs. fake engineered deceptive performer Deauthentication – how? – “Fall from Grace Myth” –e.g. baseball drug scandal (i.e. McGwire, Clemens) Paradise myth - Rookie + business accolade = superstar world-class entertainment product –e.g. rise of Tiger Woods
Sports Media Technology Fashion Video Games Music Film