Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

12-1 Prepared by Coby Harmon University of California, Santa Barbara Intermediate Accounting.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "12-1 Prepared by Coby Harmon University of California, Santa Barbara Intermediate Accounting."— Presentation transcript:

1 12-1 Prepared by Coby Harmon University of California, Santa Barbara Intermediate Accounting

2 12-2 Intermediate Accounting 14th Edition 12 Intangible Assets Kieso, Weygandt, and Warfield

3 Describe the characteristics of intangible assets Identify the costs to include in the initial valuation of intangible assets Explain the procedure for amortizing intangible assets Describe the types of intangible assets Explain the conceptual issues related to goodwill Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill Explain the accounting issues related to intangible asset impairments Identify the conceptual issues related to research and development costs Describe the accounting for research and development and similar costs Indicate the presentation of intangible assets and related items. Learning Objectives

4 12-4 Marketing- related Customer- related Artistic- related Contract- related Technology- related Goodwill Intangible Asset Issues Types of Intangibles Impairment of Intangibles Research and Development Costs Presentation of Intangibles and Related Items Characteristics Valuation Amortization Limited-life intangibles Indefinite-life intangibles other than goodwill Goodwill Summary Identifying R&D Accounting for R&D Similar costs Conceptual questions Intangible assets R&D costs Intangible Assets

5 12-5 Intangible Asset Issues LO 1 Describe the characteristics of intangible assets. Characteristics (1) (1)Lack physical existence. (2) (2)Not financial instruments. Normally classified as long-term asset. Common types of intangibles:   Patents   Copyrights   Franchises or licenses   Trademarks or trade names   Goodwill

6 12-6 Intangible Asset Issues LO 2 Identify the costs to include in the initial valuation of intangible assets. Purchased Intangibles:   Recorded at cost.   Includes all costs necessary to make the intangible asset ready for its intended use.   Typical costs include: ► ► Purchase price. ► ► Legal fees. ► ► Other incidental expenses. Valuation

7 12-7 Intangible Asset Issues LO 2 Identify the costs to include in the initial valuation of intangible assets. Valuation Internally Created Intangibles:   Generally expensed.   Only capitalize direct costs incurred in developing the intangible, such as legal costs.

8 12-8 Intangible Asset Issues LO 3 Explain the procedure for amortizing intangible assets. Amortization of Intangibles Limited-Life Intangibles:   Amortize by systematic charge to expense over useful life.   Credit asset account or accumulated amortization.   Useful life should reflect the periods over which the asset will contribute to cash flows.   Amortization should be cost less residual value.

9 12-9 Intangible Asset Issues LO 3 Explain the procedure for amortizing intangible assets. Amortization of Intangibles Indefinite-Life Intangibles:   No foreseeable limit on time the asset is expected to provide cash flows.   No amortization.   Must test indefinite-life intangibles for impairment at least annually.

10 12-10 Intangible Asset Issues LO 3 Explain the procedure for amortizing intangible assets. Illustration 12-1 Accounting Treatment for Intangibles Amortization of Intangibles

11 12-11 Types of Intangibles LO 4 Describe the types of intangible assets. Six Major Categories: (1) (1)Marketing-related. (2) (2)Customer-related. (3) (3)Artistic-related. (4) (4)Contract-related. (5) (5)Technology-related. (6) (6)Goodwill.

12 12-12 Types of Intangibles LO 4 Describe the types of intangible assets. Marketing-Related Intangible Assets   Examples: ► ► Trademarks or trade names, newspaper mastheads, Internet domain names, and non- competition agreements.   In the United States trademark or trade name has legal protection for indefinite number of 10 year renewal periods.   Capitalize acquisition costs.   No amortization.

13 12-13 Types of Intangibles LO 4 Describe the types of intangible assets. Customer-Related Intangible Assets   Examples: ► ► Customer lists, order or production backlogs, and both contractual and non-contractual customer relationships.   Capitalize acquisition costs.   Amortized to expense over useful life.

14 12-14 Types of Intangibles LO 4 Describe the types of intangible assets. Illustration: Green Market Inc. acquires the customer list of a large newspaper for $6,000,000 on January 1, Green Market expects to benefit from the information evenly over a three-year period. Record the purchase of the customer list and the amortization of the customer list at the end of each year. Customer List 6,000,000 Jan. 1 Cash 6,000,000 Amortization expense 2,000,000 Dec Customer list2,000,000

15 12-15 Types of Intangibles Artistic-Related Intangible Assets   Examples: ► ► Plays, literary works, musical works, pictures, photographs, and video and audiovisual material.   Copyright granted for the life of the creator plus 70 years.   Capitalize costs of acquiring and defending.   Amortized to expense over useful life. Mickey Mouse and LO 4

16 12-16 Types of Intangibles LO 4   Examples: ► ► Franchise and licensing agreements, construction permits, broadcast rights, and service or supply contracts.   Franchise (or license) with a limited life should be amortized to expense over the life of the franchise.   Franchise with an indefinite life should be carried at cost and not amortized. Contract-Related Intangible Assets

17 12-17 Types of Intangibles LO 4 Describe the types of intangible assets. Technology-Related Intangible Assets   Examples: ► ► Patented technology and trade secrets granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.   Patent gives holder exclusive use for a period of 20 years.   Capitalize costs of purchasing a patent.   Expense any R&D costs in developing a patent.   Amortize over legal life or useful life, whichever is shorter.

18 12-18 Types of Intangibles LO 4 Describe the types of intangible assets. Illustration: Harcott Co. incurs $180,000 in legal costs on January 1, 2012, to successfully defend a patent. The patent’s useful life is 20 years, amortized on a straight-line basis. Harcott records the legal fees and the amortization at the end of 2012 as follows. Patents 180,000 Jan. 1 Cash 180,000 Amortization expense 9,000Dec. 31 Patents9,000

19 12-19 Types of Intangibles LO 5 Explain the conceptual issues related to goodwill. Goodwill Conceptually, represents the future economic benefits arising from the other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized. Only recorded when an entire business is purchased. Goodwill is measured as the excess of... over cost of the purchase over the FMV of the identifiable net assets purchased. Internally created goodwill should not be capitalized.

20 12-20 Illustration: Multi-Diversified, Inc. decides that it needs a parts division to supplement its existing tractor distributorship. The president of Multi-Diversified is interested in buying Tractorling Company. The illustration presents the statement of financial position of Tractorling Company. Recording Goodwill LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. Illustration 12-3

21 12-21 Illustration: Multi-Diversified investigates Tractorling’s underlying assets to determine their fair values. Recording Goodwill LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. Tractorling Company decides to accept Multi-Diversified’s offer of $400,000. What is the value of the goodwill, if any? Illustration 12-4

22 12-22 Recording Goodwill LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. Illustration 12-5 Illustration: Determination of Goodwill.

23 12-23 Recording Goodwill LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. Property, Plant, and Equipment 205,000 Patents 18,000 Inventories 122,000 Receivables 35,000 Cash 25,000 Goodwill 50,000 Liabilities 55,000 Cash 400,000 Illustration: Multi-Diversified records this transaction as follows.

24 12-24 Example: Global Corporation purchased the net assets of Local Company for $300,000 on December 31, The balance sheet of Local Company just prior to acquisition is: Recording Goodwill LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. FMV of Net Assets = $200,000

25 12-25 LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. Book Value = $130,000 Fair Value = $200,000 Purchase Price = $300,000 Revaluation $70,000 Goodwill $100,000 Recording Goodwill Example: Global Corporation purchased the net assets of Local Company for $300,000 on December 31, The value assigned to goodwill is determined as follows:

26 12-26 Recording Goodwill LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. Example: Global Corporation purchased the net assets of Local Company for $300,000 on December 31, The value assigned to goodwill is determined as follows:

27 12-27 LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. Recording Goodwill Journal entry recorded by Global: Cash 15,000 Receivables10,000 Inventory70,000 Equipment130,000 Goodwill100,000 Accounts payable25,000 Cash300,000 Example: Global Corporation purchased the net assets of Local Company for $300,000 on December 31, Prepare the journal entry to record the purchase of the net assets of Local.

28 12-28 GoodwillGoodwill Goodwill Write-off   Goodwill considered to have an indefinite life.   Should not be amortized.   Only adjust carrying value when goodwill is impaired. LO 6 Describe the accounting procedures for recording goodwill. Bargain Purchase   Purchase price less than the fair value of net assets acquired.   Amount is recorded as a gain by the purchaser.

29 12-29 Impairment of Intangible Assets Impairment of Limited-Life Intangibles LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. Same as impairment for long-lived assets in Chapter If the sum of the expected future net cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment has occurred (recoverability test) The impairment loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset (fair value test). The loss is reported as part of income from continuing operations, “Other expenses and losses” section.

30 12-30 E12-14: (Copyright Impairment) Presented below is information related to copyrights owned by Botticelli Company at December 31, Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. The copyright has a remaining useful life of 10 years. (a) (a)Prepare the journal entry (if any) to record the impairment of the asset at December 31, (b) (b)Prepare the journal entry to record amortization expense for 2013 related to the copyrights.

31 12-31 Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. Recoverability test: If the sum of the expected future net cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment has occurred. Asset is Impaired

32 12-32 Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. (a) (a)Prepare the journal entry (if any) to record the impairment of the asset at December 31, Loss on impairment 1,100,000 Copyrights 1,100,000

33 12-33 Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. (b) Prepare the journal entry to record amortization expense for 2013 related to the copyrights. ÷ Amortization expense 320,000 Copyrights 320,000

34 12-34 Impairment of Intangible Assets Impairment of Indefinite-Life Intangibles Other than Goodwill LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments.   Should be tested for impairment at least annually.   Impairment test is a fair value test. ► ► If the fair value of asset is less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference. ► ► Recoverability test is not used.

35 12-35 Illustration 12-7 Illustration: Arcon Radio purchased a broadcast license for $2,000,000. Arcon Radio has renewed the license with the FCC twice, at a minimal cost. Because it expects cash flows to last indefinitely, Arcon reports the license as an indefinite-life intangible asset. Recently the FCC decided to auction these licenses to the highest bidder instead of renewing them. Arcon Radio expects cash flows for the remaining two years of its existing license. It performs an impairment test and determines that the fair value of the intangible asset is $1,500,000. Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments.

36 12-36 Impairment of Intangible Assets Impairment of Goodwill LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. Two Step Process: Step 1: If fair value is less than the carrying amount of the net assets (including goodwill), then perform a second step to determine possible impairment. Step 2: Determine the fair value of the goodwill (implied value of goodwill) and compare to carrying amount.

37 12-37 E12-15: (Goodwill Impairment) Presented below is net asset information related to the Mischa Division of Santana, Inc. as of December 31, 2012 (in millions): Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. Management estimated its future net cash flows from the division to be $400 million. Management has also received an offer to purchase the division for $335 million. All identifiable assets’ and liabilities’ book and fair value amounts are the same.

38 12-38 Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. E12-15 Instructions (a) Prepare the journal entry (if any) to record the impairment at December 31, Step 1: The fair value of the reporting unit is below its carrying value. Therefore, an impairment has occurred. Step 2: Loss on impairment 25,000,000 Goodwill 25,000,000 $ $ (25)

39 12-39 Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. E12-15 Instructions (b) At December 31, 2011, it is estimated that the division’s fair value increased to $345 million. Prepare the journal entry (if any) to record this increase in fair value.   No entry necessary.   Adjusted carrying amount of the goodwill is its new accounting basis.   Subsequent reversal of recognized impairment losses is not permitted under SFAS No. 142.

40 12-40 Impairment of Intangible Assets LO 7 Explain the accounting issues related to intangible-asset impairments. Summary of Impairment Tests Illustration 12-11

41 12-41 Research and Development Costs LO 8 Identify the conceptual issues related to research and development costs. Frequently results in something that a company patents or copyrights such as:   new product,   process,   idea,   formula,   composition, or   literary work. Research and development (R&D) costs are not in themselves intangible assets.

42 12-42 Research and Development Costs LO 8 Identify the conceptual issues related to research and development costs. Companies spend considerable sums on research and development. Illustration 12-12

43 12-43 Identifying R & D Activities LO 8 Identify the conceptual issues related to research and development costs. Research Activities Planned search or critical investigation aimed at discovery of new knowledge. Research Activities Planned search or critical investigation aimed at discovery of new knowledge. Examples Laboratory research aimed at discovery of new knowledge; searching for applications of new research findings. Examples Laboratory research aimed at discovery of new knowledge; searching for applications of new research findings. Development Activities Translation of research findings or other knowledge into a plan or design for a new product or process or for a significant improvement to an existing product or process whether intended for sale or use. Development Activities Translation of research findings or other knowledge into a plan or design for a new product or process or for a significant improvement to an existing product or process whether intended for sale or use. Examples Conceptual formulation and design of possible product or process alternatives; construction of prototypes and operation of pilot plants. Examples Conceptual formulation and design of possible product or process alternatives; construction of prototypes and operation of pilot plants. Illustration Research and Development Costs

44 12-44 Accounting for R & D Activities Costs Associated with R&D Activities:   Materials, Equipment, and Facilities.   Personnel.   Purchased Intangibles.   Contract Services.   Indirect Costs. Research and Development Costs LO 9 Describe the accounting for research and development and similar costs.

45 Investment in a subsidiary company. 2. Timberland. 3. Cost of engineering activity required to advance the design of a product to the manufacturing stage. 4. Lease prepayment. 5. Cost of equipment obtained. 6. Cost of searching for applications of new research findings. ItemItemClassificationClassification Research and Development Costs E12-1: Indicate how items on the list below would generally be reported in the financial statements. LO Long-term investments 2. 2.PP&E 3. 3.R&D expense 4. 4.Prepaid rent 5. 5.PP&E 6. 6.R&D expense

46 Cost incurred in the formation of a corporation Operating losses incurred in the start-up of a business Training costs incurred in start-up of new operation Purchase cost of a franchise Goodwill generated internally Cost of testing in search of product alternatives. Research and Development Costs LO 9 Describe the accounting for research and development and similar costs Expense 8. 8.Operating loss 9. 9.Expense Intangible Not recorded R&D expense ItemItemClassificationClassification

47 Goodwill acquired in the purchase of a business Cost of developing a patent Cost of purchasing a patent from an inventor Legal costs incurred in securing a patent Unrecovered costs of a successful legal suit to protect the patent. Research and Development Costs LO 9 Describe the accounting for research and development and similar costs Intangible R&D expense Intangible Intangible Intangible ItemItemClassificationClassification

48 Cost of conceptual formulation of possible product alternatives Cost of purchasing a copyright Research and development costs Long-term receivables Cost of developing a trademark Cost of purchasing a trademark. Research and Development Costs R&D expense Intangible R&D expense Long-term investment Expense Intangible ItemItemClassificationClassification LO 9 Describe the accounting for research and development and similar costs.

49 12-49 Costs Similar to R & D Costs   Start-up costs for a new operation.   Initial operating losses.   Advertising costs.   Computer software costs. Research and Development Costs LO 9 Describe the accounting for research and development and similar costs.

50 12-50 Cost of equipment acquired that will have alternative uses in future R&D projects over the next 5 years. Materials consumed in R&D projects Consulting fees paid to outsiders for R&D projects Personnel costs of persons involved in R&D projects Indirect costs reasonably allocable to R&D projects Materials purchased for future R&D projects $330,000 59, , ,000 50,000 34,000 $66,000 59, , ,000 50,000 0 R&D Expense $403,000 $330,000 / 5 = $66,000 Research and Development Costs E12-17: Compute the amount to be reported as research and development expense. LO 9 Describe the accounting for research and development and similar costs.

51 12-51 Balance Sheet   Intangible assets shown as a separate item.   Reporting is similar to the reporting of property, plant, and equipment.   Contra accounts may not be shown for intangibles.   Companies should report as a separate item all intangible assets other than goodwill. Presentations of Intangibles and Related Items LO 10 Indicate the presentation of intangible assets and related items. Presentation of Intangible Assets

52 12-52 Income Statement   Report amortization expense and impairment losses in continuing operations.   Total R&D costs charged to expense must be disclosed. Presentations of Intangibles and Related Items LO 10 Indicate the presentation of intangible assets and related items. Presentation of Intangible Assets

53 12-53 Presentations of Intangibles LO 10 Indicate the presentation of intangible assets and related items. Illustration 12-15

54 12-54 Presentations of R&D Costs LO 10 Indicate the presentation of intangible assets and related items. Illustration 12-16

55 12-55 LO 11 Understand the accounting treatment for computer software costs. Diversity in Practice Companies can either   purchase computer software or   create it. How should companies account for the costs of developing software? Should they expense such costs immediately, or capitalize and amortize them in the future? APPENDIX APPENDIX 12A ACCOUNTING FOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE COSTS

56 12-56 LO 11 Understand the accounting treatment for computer software costs. The Profession’s Position FASB ASC Major recommendations of this pronouncement are: 1. 1.Until a company has established technological feasibility for a software product, it should charge to R&D expense the costs incurred in creating the product Technological feasibility is established when the company has completed a detailed program design or a working model. APPENDIX APPENDIX 12A ACCOUNTING FOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE COSTS

57 12-57 LO 11 Understand the accounting treatment for computer software costs. Accounting for Capitalized Software Costs If companies are to capitalize software costs, then they must establish a proper amortization pattern. As a basis for amortization, one of two amounts is used: 1. 1.the ratio of current revenues to current and anticipated revenues (the percent-of-revenue approach), or 2. 2.the straight-line method over the remaining useful life of the asset (straight-line approach). Must use whichever of those amounts is greater. APPENDIX APPENDIX 12A ACCOUNTING FOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE COSTS

58 12-58 LO 11 Understand the accounting treatment for computer software costs. Illustration: AT&T has capitalized software costs of $10 million, and current (first-year) revenues from sales of this product of $4 million. AT&T anticipates earning $16 million in additional future revenues from this product; it estimates that the product has an economic life of four years. Under the two approaches, the calculations are as follows for the first year’s amortization: Percent-of-revenue approachStraight-line approach APPENDIX APPENDIX 12A ACCOUNTING FOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE COSTS

59 12-59 LO 11 Understand the accounting treatment for computer software costs. Reporting Software Costs Companies should report the following information relating to software Unamortized software costs The total amount charged to expense and the amounts, if any, written down to net realizable value. APPENDIX APPENDIX 12A ACCOUNTING FOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE COSTS

60 12-60 RELEVANT FACTS   Like GAAP, under IFRS intangible assets (1) lack physical substance and (2) are not financial instruments. In addition, under IFRS an intangible asset is identifiable. To be identifiable, an intangible asset must either be separable from the company (can be sold or transferred) or it arises from a contractual or legal right from which economic benefits will flow to the company. Fair value is used as the measurement basis for intangible assets under IFRS, if it is more clearly evident.   As in GAAP, under IFRS the costs associated with research and development are segregated into the two components. Costs in the research phase are always expensed under both IFRS and GAAP. Under IFRS, costs in the development phase are capitalized once technological feasibility is achieved.

61 12-61 RELEVANT FACTS   IFRS permits revaluation on limited-life intangible assets. Revaluations are not permitted for goodwill and other indefinite-life intangible assets.   IFRS permits some capitalization of internally generated intangible assets (e.g., brand value) if it is probable there will be a future benefit and the amount can be reliably measured.   IFRS requires an impairment test at each reporting date for long- lived assets and intangibles and records an impairment if the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset’s fair value less costs to sell and its value-in-use. Value-in-use is the future cash flows to be derived from the particular assets, discounted to present value.

62 12-62 RELEVANT FACTS   IFRS allows reversal of impairment losses when there has been a change in economic conditions or in the expected use of limited-life intangibles. IFRS and GAAP are similar in the accounting for impairments of assets held for disposal.   IFRS and GAAP are very similar for intangibles acquired in a business combination. That is, companies recognize an intangible asset separately from goodwill if the intangible represents contractual or legal rights or is capable of being separated or divided and sold, transferred, licensed, rented, or exchanged. In addition, under both GAAP and IFRS, companies recognize acquired in- process research and development (IPR&D) as a separate intangible asset if it meets the definition of an intangible asset and its fair value can be measured reliably.

63 12-63 Research and development costs are: a. a.expensed under GAAP. b. b.expensed under IFRS. c. c.expensed under both GAAP and IFRS. d. d.None of the above. IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION

64 12-64 A loss on impairment of an intangible asset under IFRS is the asset’s: a. a.carrying amount less the expected future net cash flows. b. b.carrying amount less its recoverable amount. c. c.recoverable amount less the expected future net cash flows. d. d.book value less its fair value. IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION

65 12-65 Recovery of impairment is recognized for all the following except: a. a.patent held for sale. b. b.patent held for use. c. c.trademark. d. d.goodwill. IFRS SELF-TEST QUESTION

66 12-66 Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein. CopyrightCopyright


Download ppt "12-1 Prepared by Coby Harmon University of California, Santa Barbara Intermediate Accounting."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google