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FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR CODLING MOTH FINAL REPORT: 2003-2005.,

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Presentation on theme: "FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR CODLING MOTH FINAL REPORT: 2003-2005.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR CODLING MOTH FINAL REPORT: ,

2 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR CODLING MOTH The Nuts and Bolts of this project: WHY DO THIS? –1. Codling moths find apple fruit in part by chemical odor. –2. We should be able to reproduce that chemical odor and use it as a lure. –3. Such a lure should work for females, and should WHAT WE NOW KNOW? –1. Several apple odor chemicals are attractive to codling moths –2. All are weak in comparison to pear ester, making them impractical. –3. All are weak in comparison to apple odor, meaning we yet do not know how codling moths find and select apples. SO NOW WHAT? –1. Is it the release rate or ratio of compounds? –2. Can these compounds impact mating disruption? –3. Can we learn anything more from wild apples?

3 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR THE CODLING MOTH –Behavioral Proof of Moth Attraction to Apple Odor Olfactometer assays –Y-tube Flight tunnel assays Greenhouse: release and trap Field tests: Trapping

4 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR THE CODLING MOTH

5 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR CODLING MOTH What are apple odorants? –Methods Volatile collections SPME GC-MS –Findings Numerous compounds Varies with variety Varies with age/maturity/storage Varies with damage –Relevance to Project Provided fodder for GC-EAD APPLE VOLATILE CHROMATOGRAM

6 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR THE CODLING MOTH CHEMICALEADASSAYFIELD EE-ALPHA FARNESENE+++ ZE ALPHA FARNESENE+ BETA FARNESENE+++ METHYL SALICYLATE+ B-CARYOPHYLLENE+ Z-3-HEXENOL++ B-LINALOOL++ GERMACRENE-D+ BUTYL BUTANOATE+ HEXYL HEXANOATE++ HEXYL-2-METHYL-BUTANOATE+ BENZYL ALCOHOL HEXYL ACETATE- PEAR ESTER+++ Z-3-HEXENYL ACETATE+ FARNESOL+ ETHYL CAPROATE++ ETHYL BENZOATE++ Methyl Butyl Acetate+ Bergamotene+ Backman et al (2001), Bengtsson et al. (2001), Coracini et al. (2004), Hern and Dorn (1999, 2001, 2004), Light et al. (2001), Yang et al (2004), Landolt (in prep.).

7 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR CODLING MOTH FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR CODLING MOTH Trapping Assays –Methods Pherocon wing trap Rubber septa and vials Orchard plots with good codling moth densities –Experiments Single component Double component Complex blends –Rationale EAD active compounds are putative attractants Other labs know what they are doing

8 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR THE CODLING MOTH Major findings: Field Single chemical kairomones that are attractive in the field. Pear ester EE-alpha farnesene Beta farnesene Ethyl caproate Single chemical kairomones that may be inhibitory to beta farnesene in the field. Ocimene Linalool

9 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR THE CODLING MOTH Other findings –Male response to pheromone can be enhanced with pear ester

10 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR THE CODLING MOTH WHERE IS THE PEAR ESTER? –Volatile collections from Bartlett Pear fruit –Nothing until ripe –Much more when cut –Some more when infested

11 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR THE CODLING MOTH SUMMARY WE DISCOVERED ADDITIONAL APPLE ODORANTS THAT CODLING MOTH CAN SMELL, FROM INFESTED APPLES WE SHOWED STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT TRAP RESPONSES OF CODLING MOTHS TO ALPHA FARNESENE, BETA FARNESENE, ETHYL CAPROATE, AND ETHYL BENZOATE WE DETERMINED THAT THESE RESPONSE ARE WEAK COMPARED TO PEAR ESTER, ALTHOUGH VARIABLE LIKE THE PEAR ESTER WE SHOWED A CONSISTENT ENHANCED RESPONSE OF MALES TO PHEROMONE PLUS PEAR ESTER WE DETERMINED THAT PEAR ESTER IS ESSENTIALLY ABSENT FROM VOLATILES OF FUJI AND GALA APPLES, AND BARTLETT PEARS UNTIL THEY ARE RIPE.

12 FIELD TESTING OF MULTI-COMPONENT HOST PLANT KAIROMONES FOR THE CODLING MOTH SO NOW WHAT? –1. Is it the release rate or ratio of compounds? Suggested by Peter Witzgall, but problematic for a lure –2. Can these compounds impact mating disruption? –3. Can we learn anything more from wild apples? We are not working in the system that the behavior originally evolved with. I might be helpful to look at volatiles of wild apples and moth responses to wild apples versus commercial apples –My failure to develop an apple lure for codling moth does not mean that there is not one in place for the moth.


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