2Journal #1Distinguishing between power and authority is, fundamentally, reflective of one’s political beliefs. In what kinds of institutions do you have confidence? Why do you trust them? In contrast, what kinds of institutions raise your suspicions? Why?
3# 1. What is political power? Power as it is used to affect who will hold government office & how government will behaveAuthority: the right to use powerLegitimacy
4#2. What is democracy? Describes three different political systems 1. Democratic centralism2. Aristotelian (direct or participatory)3. Representative democracy
5#3. Direct v. Representative Democracy Direct: impractical, ”mobocracy” ,Representative: favored by the framers, Constitution does not contain word “democracy”
6#4. How is power distributed in a democracy? A. Majoritarian politicsLeaders follow the wishes of the peopleB. Elitismgov’t is controlled by the dominant classPower elite – key corporate leaders, military leaders, & political leadersBureaucrats (nonelected gov’t workers)Pluralist: no single elite has a monopoly on power
75. Describe the events leading to the demise of the Articles of Confederation
8Could not levy taxes or regulate commerce little money coined by CongressDisputes between states
9No National judicial system Congress did have the power to maintain an army & navy, yet lacked resources
106. Examine the philosophies, backgrounds, and experiences of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention
11Framers - Young (exception Franklin) vast amount of political, educational, legal & business experience
12Motives debated over the years. Key players Hamilton & MadisonMissing- Jefferson, Adams & Henry
137. Key Principles – Pushed by Madison FederalismSeparation of PowersChecks & BalancesLimits on the Majority- only the House elected by the people
14Critics views Reducing the Separation of Powers Making the system less Democratic
158. Describe the ratification procedures and arguments for and against ratification of the Constitution
16The Constitution had to be approved by 9 states not 13 Proponents – Federalists (nationalists)Opponents – Antifederalists (states’ righters)
179. What were the liberties guaranteed in the Constitution? Writ of habeas corpus may not be suspendedNo bill of attainder may be passedNo ex post facto may be passedRight of trial by juryCitizens of each state are entitled to the privileges and immunities of the citizens of every other stateNo religious test for holding federal office
18Government Make and enforce public policies Consists of lawmakers, administrators and judges
19Public PolicyIs a choice that gov’t makes in response to some issue on its agenda
20Types of Public Policy Congressional statute (laws) Presidential actionCourt decisionRegulation
21Forms of GovernmentMonarchy/Dictatorship/OligarchyRepublicTheocracy
22HOW IS POWER DISTRIBUTED? UnitaryFederalConfederation
23Figure 3.1: Lines of Power in Three Systems of Government
24Figure 3.1: Lines of Power in Three Systems of Government (cont’d)
25Figure 3.1: Lines of Power in Three Systems of Government (cont’d)
26Relationship between Leg. & Executive PresidentialParliamentary
28Gov’t by force / By the People DictatorshipDemocracyparticipatoryRepresentative
29Journal # 2, 2/5/10Which form of government, presidential or parliamentary is best to respond to the needs of the citizens? Why?
30American Political Culture Political culture – is the distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out.Political culture should not be confused with Political ideology
31Basic views - political Liberty (Freedoms)EqualityDemocracyCivic dutyIndividual responsibility
32Economic assumptions Liberty – free-enterprise “equality of opportunity”Individualism
33Cultural ConflictAreas of disagreement include- abortion, gay rights, drug use, school prayer, and pornographyTwo basic viewsOrthodox – morality more important than self-expressionProgressive- personal freedom more important than traditional moral rules
34Figure 4.1: Trust in the Federal Government, 1958-2001 Source: University of Michigan, The National Election Studies, (September 1999), table 5A.1, updated by Los Angeles Times, poll taken November 10-13, 2001.
35Political Efficacy- The capacity to understand and influence political events
36Figure 4.2: Changes in the Sense of Political Efficacy Source: University of Michigan, The National Election Studies,
37Table 4.2: Patriotism in America, France, and Germany
38Table 4.3: Commitment to Income Equity in Sweden and the United States
39Figure 4.4a: Views of Toleration and Morality Source: The American Enterprise (January/February 1999): 37, reporting data from Roper, Washington Post, Harvard, and Kaiser Family Foundation polls.
40Figure 4.4b: Views of Toleration and Morality (cont’d) Source: The American Enterprise (January/February 1999): 37, reporting data from Roper, Washington Post, Harvard, and Kaiser Family Foundation polls.
41Figure 4.5: Changes in Levels of Political Tolerance, 1930-1999 Source: Gallup poll data, various years, as compiled by Professor John Zaller, Department of Political Science, UCLA; The Gallup Organization, Poll Releases (March 29, 1999), 2-6.
42Table 4.7: Religion in Industrialized Nations, 1990-1993