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Strategy Formulation: Corporate Strategy Chapter 7
Learning Objectives Understand the three aspects of corporate strategy Apply the directional strategies of growth, stability and retrenchment Understand the differences between vertical and horizontal growth as well as concentric and conglomerate diversification Identify strategic options to enter a foreign country Apply portfolio analysis to guide decisions in companies with multiple products and businesses Develop a parenting strategy for a multiple-business corporation Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-2
Corporate Strategy Corporate strategy the choice of direction of the firm as a whole and the management of its business or product portfolio and concerns 7-3 Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Corporate Strategy Directional strategy the firm’s overall orientation toward growth, stability or retrenchment Portfolio analysis industries or markets in which the firm competes through its products and business units Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-4
Corporate Strategy Parenting strategy the manner in which management coordinates activities and transfers resources and cultivates capabilities among product lines and business units Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-5
Corporate Directional Strategies Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-6 Figure 7-1
Directional Strategy Growth strategies expand the company’s activities Stability strategies make no change to the company’s current activities Retrenchment strategies reduce the company’s level of activities Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-7
Growth Strategies Merger a transaction involving two or more corporations in which stock is exchanged but in which only one corporation survives Acquisition 100% purchase of another company Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-8
Concentration Strategies Vertical growth achieved by taking over a function previously provided by a supplier or distributor Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-9
Concentration Strategies Vertical integration the degree to which a firm operates vertically in multiple locations on an industry’s value chain from extracting raw materials to manufacturing to retailing Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-10
Vertical Integration Backward integration assuming a function previously provided by a supplier Forward integration assuming a function previously provided by a distributor Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-11
Vertical Integration Transaction cost economies vertical integration is more efficient than contracting for goods and services in the marketplace when the transaction costs of buying on the open market become too great Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-12
Vertical Integration Continuum Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-13
Vertical Integration Full integration a firm internally makes 100% of its key supplies and completely controls its distributors Taper integration a firm internally produces less than half of its own requirements and buys the rest from outside suppliers Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-14
Vertical Integration Quasi-integration a company does not make any of its key supplies but purchases most of its requirements from outside suppliers that are under its partial control Long-term contracts agreements between two firms to provide agreed-upon goods and services to each other for a specific period of time Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-15
Concentration Strategies Horizontal growth expansion of operations into other geographic locations and/or increasing the range of products and services offered to current markets Horizontal integration the degree to which a firm operates in multiple geographic locations at the same point on an industry’s value chain Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-16
International Entry Options for Horizontal GrowthExportingLicensingFranchising Joint Venture Acquisitions Green-Field Development Production Sharing Turn-Key Operations BOT Concept Management Contracts Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-17
Diversification Strategies Concentric (Related) diversification growth into a related industry when a firm has a strong competitive position but attractiveness is low Synergy the concept that two businesses will generate more profits together than they could separately Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-18
Diversification Strategies Conglomerate (Unrelated) diversification diversifying into an industry unrelated to its current one Management realizes that the current industry is unattractive. Firm lacks outstanding abilities or skills that it could easily transfer to related products or services in other industries. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-19
Controversies in Directional Strategies Is vertical growth better than horizontal growth? Is concentration better than diversification? Is concentric diversification better than conglomerate diversification? Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-20
Stability Strategies Pause/Proceed with caution strategy an opportunity to rest before continuing a growth or retrenchment strategy No-change strategy decision to do nothing new—a choice to continue current operations and policies for the foreseeable future Profit strategies decision to do nothing new in a worsening situation but instead to act as though the company’s problems are only temporary Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-21
Retrenchment Strategies Retrenchment strategies used when the firm has a weak competitive position in some or all of its product lines from poor performance Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-22
Retrenchment Strategies Turnaround strategy emphasizes the improvement of operational efficiency when the corporation’s problems are pervasive but not critical Contraction effort to quickly “stop the bleeding” across the board but in size and costs Consolidation stabilization of the new leaner corporation Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-23
Retrenchment Strategies Captive company strategy company gives up independence in exchange for security Sell-out strategy management can still obtain a good price for its shareholders and the employees can keep their jobs by selling the company to another firm Divestment sale of a division with low growth potential Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-24
Retrenchment Strategies Bankruptcy company gives up management of the firm to the courts in return for some settlement of the corporation’s obligations Liquidation management terminates the firm Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-25
Portfolio Analysis Portfolio analysis management views its product lines and business units as a series of investments from which it expects a profitable return Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-26
BCG Growth—Share Matrix Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-27 Figure 7-3
BCG Matrix Question marks new products with the potential for success but need a lot of cash for development Stars market leaders that are typically at or nearing the peak of their product life cycle and are able to generate enough cash to maintain their high share of the market and usually contribute to the company’s profits Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-28
BCG Matrix Cash cows products that bring in far more money than is needed to maintain their market share Dogs products with low market share and do not have the potential to bring in much cash Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-29
BCG Matrix—Limitations Use of highs and lows to form categories is too simplistic. Link between market share and profitability is questionable. Growth rate is only one aspect of industry attractiveness. Product lines or business units are considered only in relation to one competitor. Market share is only one aspect of overall competitive position. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-30
Advantages and Limitations of Portfolio Analysis Advantages Encourages top management to evaluate each of the corporation’s businesses individually and to set objectives and allocate resources for each Stimulates the use of externally oriented data to supplement management’s judgment Raises the issue of cash flow availability to use in expansion and growth Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-31
Advantages and Limitations of Portfolio Analysis Limitations Defining product/market segments is difficult Suggest the use of standard strategies that can miss opportunities or be impractical Value-laden terms such as cash cow and dog can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies Lack of clarity on what makes an industry attractive or where a product is in its life cycle Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-32
Tasks Necessary for Managing a Strategic Alliance Portfolio 1. Developing and implementing a portfolio strategy for each business unit and a corporate policy for managing all the alliances of the entire company 2. Monitoring the alliance portfolio in terms of implementing business units’ strategies and corporate strategy and policies Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-33
Tasks Necessary for Managing a Strategic Alliance Portfolio 3. Coordinating the portfolio to obtain synergies and avoid conflicts among alliances 4. Establishing an alliance management system to support other tasks of multi-alliance management Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-34
Corporate Parenting Corporate parenting views a corporation in terms of resources and capabilities that can be used to build business unit value as well as generate synergies across business units Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-35
Corporate Parenting Generates corporate strategy by focusing on the core competencies of the parent corporation and the value created from the relationship between the parent and its businesses Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-36
Developing a Corporate Parenting Strategy 1. Examine each business unit in terms of its strategic factors 2. Examine each business unit in terms of areas in which performance can be improved 3. Analyze how well the parent corporation fits with the business unit Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-37
Horizontal Strategy and Multipoint Competition Horizontal strategy cuts across business unit boundaries to build synergy across business units and to improve competitive position in one of more business units Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-38
Horizontal Strategy and Multipoint Competition Multipoint competition large multi-business corporations compete against other large multi-business firms in a number of markets Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-39
Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-40
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS POLICY 12 TH EDITION THOMAS L. WHEELEN J. DAVID HUNGER.
Prentice Hall, 2002Chapter 6 Wheelen/Hunger 1 Chapter 6 Strategy Formulation: Corporate Strategy.
1 Chapter 6 Strategy Formulation: Corporate Strategy.
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