# T HINKING – C ONCEPTS AND P ROBLEM S OLVING Pages 305-310.

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T HINKING – C ONCEPTS AND P ROBLEM S OLVING Pages 305-310

W HAT IS THOUGHT ? There are basically two types of thought… 1. Concepts (schemas)…usually based on prototypes. 2. Images Our concept of men may include all of the following guys…. But they are based on our prototype (ideal) male…..

L OGICAL VS N ATURAL C ONCEPTS Clearly defined rules Square Fuzzy rules – subjective Chair Anger Justice LogicalNatural

L OGICAL OR N ATURAL ? Vegetarian? Beautiful person? Prime number? Eligibility to vote? Fun party?

H OW DO WE SOLVE PROBLEMS ?

1. T RIAL AND E RROR

2. A LGORITHMS A rule that guarantees the right solution to a problem. Usually by using a formula. They work but are sometimes impractical.

3. H EURISTICS A rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. A short cut (that can be prone to errors). Who would you trust to baby-sit your child? Your answer is based on your heuristic of their appearances.

4. I NSIGHT A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. No real strategy involved

S ULTAN THE C HIMP AND INSIGHT Animals can have an “ah-ha” moment as well! Used short stick to reach for long stick in order to get fruit

QUIZ TIME! Q UESTION 1 Which of the following is an example of the use of heuristics? a. Trying every possible letter ordering when unscrambling a word b. Considering each possible move when playing chess c. Using the formula “area = length x width” to find the area of a rectangle d. Playing chess using a defensive strategy that has often been successful for you

Q UIZ QUESTION 2 A mental grouping of similar things, events, or people is called a(n): a. Prototype b. Concept c. Algorithm d. Heuristic

H URDLES TO PROBLEM SOLVING 310-314

C ONFIRMATION B IAS We look for evidence to confirm our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts them. For example, if one believes that all Italians are in shape and go tanning, then they turn on MTV. Look…I knew it was true!!! But is it really?

M ATCH P ROBLEM Can you arrange these six matches into four equilateral triangles?

M ATCH P ROBLEM Fixation The inability to see a problem from a new perspective.

T HE J UG P ROBLEM

B – A – 2C = desired amount of water

M ENTAL SET a.k.a. rigidity The tendency to fall into established thought patterns. Some examples are….

F UNCTIONAL F IXEDNESS The inability to see a new use for an object. Think of as many uses as you can for a …… Funny examples of Functional Fixedness

R EPRESENTATIVENESS H EURISTIC Judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to the prototypes the person holds in their mind. Like thinking everyone from is Winnetka is a snob, or someone with glasses is nerdy, or a blonde is not smart. If I tell you that Sonia Dara is a Sports Illustrated swimsuit model, you would make certain quick judgments (heuristics) about her…like about her interests or intelligence. She is an economics major at Harvard University. Who went to Harvard? This guy has created a tech blog in his spare time. BUT… he did not go to Harvard.

A VAILABILITY H EURISTIC Judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that initially come to mind. Vivid examples in the news often cause an availability heuristic. Which place would you be more scared of getting mugged or even murdered? South Central, LA Columbus, OH The crime rate of Columbus, OH is higher than that of Los Angeles, CA. However, there are MANY more examples in the media of violence in LA (particularly South Central).

H EURISTICS CAN LEAD TO O VERCONFIDENCE … Our confidence is not a good indicator of how right we are. Belief Perseverance- maintaining a belief even after it has been proven wrong. Belief Bias- People will tend to accept any and all conclusions that fit in with their systems of belief, without challenge or any deep consideration of what they are actually agreeing with.

A RE YOU MORE LIKELY TO BE KILLED BY J AWS OR M Y L ITTLE P ONY ?? Which are deadlier - sharks or horses?

F RAMING 90% of the population will be saved with this medication…..or 10% of the population will die despite this medication. You should not drink more than two drinks per day….or You should not drink more than 730 drinks a year. Look at the following question and think about how the question is worded may effect the way it is answered. How can businesses become more socially responsible? The way a problem is presented can drastically effect the way we view it.

B ELIEF B IAS 315-318 “God is love. Love is blind. Ray Charles is blind. Ray Charles is God.”

B ELIEF B IAS The tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning.

B ELIEF B IAS

B ELIEF P ERSEVERANCE Clinging to your initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

QUIZ TIME QUIZ QUESTION 1 You hear that one of the Smith children is an outstanding Little League player and immediately conclude it’s their one son rather than any of their four daughters. You reached your quite possibly erroneous conclusion as a result of: a. The confirmation bias b. The availability heuristic c. The representativeness heuristic d. Belief perseverance

Q UIZ QUESTION 2 A good example of confirmation bias is: a. Seeing a new, alternative use for a tool b. Believing that the Cubs will win the World Series this year, even though they haven’t won since 1908 c. Only paying attention to news reports that suggest Chicago is a dangerous city d. Thinking of a soccer mom as a middle aged woman wearing a visor and driving a minivan

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