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1 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop How to get your Students to Prepare for Every Class Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) A. Gavrin, IUPUI

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Presentation on theme: "1 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop How to get your Students to Prepare for Every Class Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) A. Gavrin, IUPUI"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop How to get your Students to Prepare for Every Class Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) A. Gavrin, IUPUI

2 2 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop A few of your comments “x”: The first question was a bit ambiguous. But it is OK as it made me think further. “Bueller”: …it seems to be impractical to assign questions that will result in lengthy answers that cannot be effectively (and quickly) reviewed… “Andriy” In my opinion it is great method, which, however, needs special preparation… “LC”…not everybody is able to use it effectively …

3 3 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Outline IntroductionIntroduction Just-in-Time TeachingJust-in-Time Teaching –“Theory” –Implementation –Aside: How to get great student evaluations AssessmentAssessment

4 4 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop How did you decide how to teach? “ATS”: I try to think back to when I was an undergrad and imagine how I would have best learned the material. “CGP”: I have made decisions based on my own experience in similar courses (now ~years out of date) and discussions with other faculty members (and graduate students) … “Vayu”: Experience as a student. I've tried to incorporate what i thought were "good" things some of the profs who've taught me over the years and avoid what i thought were the "bad" things. “R”: Based on observations of and conversations with teachers that I have either experienced first-hand as being good teachers or who have been recommended to me…

5 5 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Results Classes that are designed “for professors”Classes that are designed “for professors” Problem: Students do not learn like we doProblem: Students do not learn like we do –See R. Felder references on web site Many students not well preparedMany students not well prepared Few students motivated like we wereFew students motivated like we were Most students have different goals than we did.Most students have different goals than we did. Most students do not “think like we do”Most students do not “think like we do”

6 6 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Digression Could have spent time “collecting data”Could have spent time “collecting data” Instead, spent time discussing itInstead, spent time discussing it Same content covered at greater depthSame content covered at greater depth

7 7 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Outline IntroductionIntroduction Just-in-Time TeachingJust-in-Time Teaching –Background –Implementation –Aside: How to get great student evaluations AssessmentAssessment

8 8 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop The (original) settings Large numbers of studentsLarge numbers of students Theater-style lecture hallIUPUITheater-style lecture hallIUPUI 1 graduate assistant (lab only)1 graduate assistant (lab only) All students take physics USAFAAll students take physics USAFA Military, athletic requirementsMilitary, athletic requirements Highly selective college Davidson Coll.Highly selective college Davidson Coll. Very heavy teaching loadsVery heavy teaching loads

9 9 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop The “theoretical” background Active learning (students think in class)Active learning (students think in class) Student centered (it is not about you)Student centered (it is not about you) Formative assessment (real-time feedback)Formative assessment (real-time feedback) Peer interaction (learning and motivation)Peer interaction (learning and motivation) Many learning styles (faculty not like students)Many learning styles (faculty not like students)

10 10 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Active Learning: Proven effective for “regular students”Proven effective for “regular students” –Anyone not a likely future professor Used extensively at MIT, RPI, UIUC, NCSU, HarvardUsed extensively at MIT, RPI, UIUC, NCSU, Harvard Used extensively at IUPUI, many other places you have never heard of, community colleges, high schools, etc.Used extensively at IUPUI, many other places you have never heard of, community colleges, high schools, etc. Question: How did you learn from your PhD advisor… Lectures?Question: How did you learn from your PhD advisor… Lectures?

11 11 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Outline IntroductionIntroduction Just-in-Time TeachingJust-in-Time Teaching –Background –Background –Implementation –Aside: How to get great student evaluations AssessmentAssessment

12 12 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop What is JiTT? “Elethea”: It's a teaching approach that uses pre-class, post-reading quizzes to spur students to think about the topic, inform instructor's teaching, and amass volumes of data on student learning. “Mishka”: It's a way to optimize the contact time in the classroom between teachers and students.. “Toshiba:” It is a teaching method that incorporates the feedback from students into classroom teaching. Instructors assign pre-class works to students. By evaluating the student's answer, instructors tune their lectures to better cater the needs of students

13 13 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) World Wide Web AssignmentDesign Homework Classroom

14 14 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Just-in-Time Teaching Adaptable – focus on feedback, not on detailsAdaptable – focus on feedback, not on details WarmUp Exercises = Online, pre-class reading quiz:WarmUp Exercises = Online, pre-class reading quiz: –Due 1-24 hours before class –A few open-ended, conceptual, questions –Cover that day’s material –Provide “conversation starters”

15 15 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Another Digression JiTT described in your wordsJiTT described in your words Jargon already familiar (JiTT, WarmUp)Jargon already familiar (JiTT, WarmUp) “preview” of important concepts“preview” of important concepts

16 16 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Example Question: Is it possible to add heat to an ideal gas without changing its temperature? If it is possible, please explain how it is done.Question: Is it possible to add heat to an ideal gas without changing its temperature? If it is possible, please explain how it is done. –“It is not possible because the internal energy of an ideal gas only depends on the temperature.... the internal energy will increase when the temperature rises.…” –“It is possible to add heat to an ideal gas without it changing it's temperature by the gas receiving the heat, and the atoms of that gas getting excited enough to disperse that heat as fast as they receive it…” –“If you add heat to a system while the system is doing the corresponding amount of work, the temperature will not change.”

17 17 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop What makes a good WarmUp? “I’mNotElvisPresley”: Short exercises that prompts the student to think about the upcoming lesson. “Drago”:Questions should be short and conceptual and could be open-ended in order to get students thinking. “CalCal”:good warmup exercise would encourage students to begin thinking through a problem before class, trying to see the different angles of it. “Dr Dr.” a good warm-up will elicit students' prior knowledge about a topic, and get them thinking about what they do and do not understand … “Owl”: Broad, open-ended questions that can prompt discussions in class.

18 18 Online archive of Warmup exercises archive.html archive.html Introductory physics (2 semester sequence)Introductory physics (2 semester sequence) Statistical/Thermal Physics (2 sets)Statistical/Thermal Physics (2 sets) Intermediate Mechanics (2 sets)Intermediate Mechanics (2 sets) Quantum MechanicsQuantum Mechanics Mathematical MethodsMathematical Methods Intermediate E&M (2 semester sequence)Intermediate E&M (2 semester sequence) Introductory AstronomyIntroductory Astronomy Needed: Modern Physics!Needed: Modern Physics! 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop

19 19 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Choosing and using student responses More useful phrases…More useful phrases… –This is a good answer, but to a different question… –This has a great beginning, but more could be added… –This is correct, but the reasoning isn’t quite right… Always say something positive (see last example)Always say something positive (see last example) –This is true, but what if something else occurs simultaneously… –This makes sense, but something is missing… –This is a great response… how would we know how much heat to add?

20 20 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Tips and Pitfalls Explain methods and purpose on first dayExplain methods and purpose on first day No need to review all responses before class; sample for “useful” quotes, grade laterNo need to review all responses before class; sample for “useful” quotes, grade later Focus on students strengths, too, not just misconceptions and other problems.Focus on students strengths, too, not just misconceptions and other problems. Use answers from many students: not favorites.Use answers from many students: not favorites. Do not “isolate” WarmUps - scaffold lectureDo not “isolate” WarmUps - scaffold lecture Must be routine. Do not start/stop during semesterMust be routine. Do not start/stop during semester Upper level students can handle more “exploratory” questions, connections to intro.Upper level students can handle more “exploratory” questions, connections to intro.

21 21 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Chemistry example This picture depicts matter at the submicroscopic level. Describe what you see and take a guess as to what the identity of the substance is. –“The particles are well spaced out so I would guess the substance to be a gas. The substance is a gas composed of 2 elements that are in an equal ratio.” –“After reading Chapter 1 in the book I would guess that the substance is water in the form of a solid because the atoms are in order. However, I could be wrong because I think the atoms in a solid might be closer together.”

22 22 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Other JiTT Components Weekly Puzzle Opposite “Bookend” to WarmUpWeekly Puzzle Opposite “Bookend” to WarmUp “What is Physics Good For”“What is Physics Good For” Student-Faculty and Student-Student Communication toolsStudent-Faculty and Student-Student Communication tools Collaborative problem Solving in RecitationCollaborative problem Solving in Recitation

23 23 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Results Students better prepared for classStudents better prepared for class –Familiar with jargon –Given thought to ideas Faculty better prepared for studentsFaculty better prepared for students –Misconceptions identified –Just in time adjustment to coverage Class time spent more productivelyClass time spent more productively –Students interact during class

24 24 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Outline The ChallengesThe Challenges Just-in-Time TeachingJust-in-Time Teaching –Background –Background –implementation –implementation –Aside: How to get great student evaluations AssessmentAssessment

25 25 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop How to get great student evaluations Be honest and clear—use the first day of class to explain what you are doing and why.Be honest and clear—use the first day of class to explain what you are doing and why. First five minutes are absolutely crucial!First five minutes are absolutely crucial! Be a leader—college is difficult and confusing, so students look to you for motivation.Be a leader—college is difficult and confusing, so students look to you for motivation. Build a team—let students know that you and they are working towards a common goal.Build a team—let students know that you and they are working towards a common goal. Hold yourself and your students to high standards—if you work hard, they will too.Hold yourself and your students to high standards—if you work hard, they will too.

26 26 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Study Habits (N=155, biology) Q1 Do the WarmUps help you stay caught up? Q2 Do you “Cram” before tests in this course? Q3 Do you “Cram” in your other courses? 1- Yes 2- Yes 3- Yes “A” students 85%14%43% “B” students 89 % 39%61% “C” students 89%47%68% “D” students 84%68%68% “F” students 92%58%58%

27 27 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Retention (N~80-150/semester)

28 28 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Cognitive (biology, N~200)

29 29 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Affective (E&M, N~60)

30 30 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Student Comments “This was a fantastic course. It was the hardest course I’ve taken yet, but also the most fun.”“This was a fantastic course. It was the hardest course I’ve taken yet, but also the most fun.” I think the WarmUps are a good idea because they give students a chance to think about the material prior to lecture.I think the WarmUps are a good idea because they give students a chance to think about the material prior to lecture. "This course was very well structured. It was obvious that a lot of time was spent in preparation for it.”"This course was very well structured. It was obvious that a lot of time was spent in preparation for it.” "152 & 251 have made me reach more than any courses I have taken.”"152 & 251 have made me reach more than any courses I have taken.” Don’t tell anyone, but I think I will greatly miss my physics class.Don’t tell anyone, but I think I will greatly miss my physics class.

31 31 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Summary JiTT is based on feedback between homework and classroomJiTT is based on feedback between homework and classroom Class is a dialog based on students work and faculty notesClass is a dialog based on students work and faculty notes WarmUp exercise: a pre-class, online reading quizWarmUp exercise: a pre-class, online reading quiz Improved study habits, retention, content knowledge, morale.Improved study habits, retention, content knowledge, morale. Instructor knowledge of student difficultiesInstructor knowledge of student difficulties Easily adopted and adaptedEasily adopted and adapted

32 32 11/18/11New Faculty Workshop Your Assignment: Please write a few possible warmup questions for a class you will teach some time soon.


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