Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
製作:賴亦歆老師 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Jan 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968

2 Timeline Segregation Opposition to the Vietnam war
Montgomery Bus Boycott MLK Jr. Day Segregation 1861~ the American Civil War Early life & Education Assassination Pastor King March to Washington

3 Segregation Laws Confederate Flag Largely because of Plessy vs. Ferguson, racial segregation prevailed in the South from the 1890's until the 1950's. 

4 Segregation Laws Under segregation, laws kept blacks and whites apart.
Confederate Flag Under segregation, laws kept blacks and whites apart. They were not allowed to attend the same schools or churches, eat in the same restaurants, drink from the same water fountains, or even use the same restaurants.

5 The Ku Klux Klan, a supposedly secret society dedicated to maintaining white supremacy in America, regularly committed acts of terrorism throughout 20th century. Their masks, hooded robes, and terrifying symbol—a burning cross—were among many devices used to frighten anyone who favored integration or spoke out against the abuse of black people’s rights.

6 One terrorism practiced by whites to assert their authority over blacks was lynching—racially motivated execution without a trial. The victim was typically a black person who had been accused (but not found guilty) of an offense, or one who had angered whites by asserting his/her own individuality. Torture was often inflicted before killing. Some white townspeople treat lynching as entertainment. The power of the segregation system was evident in the fact that white murderers were almost never convicted. Historians believe that more than 10,000 black Americans died this way between the Civil War and civil rights movement.

7 Martin’s Childhood Education
Michael Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929, to a school teacher, Alberta King, and a Baptist minister, Rev. Michael Luther King, Sr. in Atlanta, Georgia. His father later changed both their names to Martin Luther King. Martin and his big sister Christine. Education In 19444, King entered Morehouse College at age fifteen without formally graduating from high school. In 1948, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, from which he graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity degree in In 1955, he received a Doctorate of Philosophy in Systematic Theology from Boston University.   Martin skipped 9th and 12th grade. He was very smart. He attended college at age 15!

8 Influenced by Gandhi …Nonviolent Disobedience
Dr. King & his wife Coretta In the Crozer Theological Seminary, King heard a preach on the life and teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. He began to study Gandhi seriously.

9 Pastor King King began his ministry in 1954 as the pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.

10 Rosa Parks— The Voice of Montgomery in 1955
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white - she was arrested.

11 Listen to Dr. King and Ralph Abernathy discuss the importance of the boycott (1:53)
The NAACP, with the help of Rev. Ralph Abernathy and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., organized a bus boycott in Montgomery, which lasted 381 days. Black economic power: Without black riders, white-owned bus companies were pushed to the brink of bankruptcy. The Rev. Ralph Abernathy and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., from left, at a press conference.

12 The success of the boycott demanded inconvenience and complications in the lives of Montgomery blacks. Getting to work by foot, by thumb (hitchhikers), and by car pool, through a hot summer and a rainy winter, thousands made a daily commitment not to take the bus. One day, MLK saw an old woman called Mother Pollard walking slowly down the road,. “Aren’t your feet tired?” Martin asked her. “Yes,” said Mother Pollard. “My feets is tired, but my soul is rested.” She meant that she knew she was doing the right thing.

13

14

15 An empty bus passed by during the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

16 Dr. King was Arrested For travelling 30 mph in a 25 mph zone
Police started harassing the car pool, threatening to arrest drivers, revoke their licenses, and cancel their insurance policies. On January 26, King was arrested for speeding and taken to jail. A few days later, his house was bombed. It wasn’t long before King was receiving dozens of hate letters and threatening phone calls every day. In February, an all-white grand jury indicted 89 people, including 24 ministers and all drivers in the car pool, for violating an obscure anti-labor law that prohibited boycotts. King was the first to be tried. The judge found him guilty and sentenced him a year of hard labor or a fine of $500 plus court costs.

17 MLK Jr. was photographed by Alabama cops following his February 1956 arrest during the Montgomery bus boycott. The historic mug shot, taken when King was 27, was discovered in July 2004 by a deputy cleaning out a Montgomery County Sheriff's Department storage room. It is unclear when the notations 'DEAD' and '4-4-68' were written on the picture.

18 A hard-won battle In 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was unconstitutional, sealing the success of the boycott. Therefore, the Montgomery bus company agreed to integrate their buses and hire black bus drivers. Dr. King & Rev. Ralph Abernathy riding a bus on the first day for desegregated buses in Montgomery, Alabama. (December 21, 1956) Dr. King and his wife, Coretta, at the conclusion of the boycott.

19 March for Civil Rights Hear Dr. King’s “I Have a Dream” speech at timeforkids.com/dream In 1963, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC Dr. MLK Jr. gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech to over 250,000 people! “I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed, "We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content, will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquillity in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of the revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plain of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force; and the marvelous new militancy, which has engulfed the Negro community, must not lead us to a distrust of all white people. For many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we talk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied? We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality; we can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of cities; we cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one; we can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "For Whites Only;' we cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No! no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until "justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream." I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi. Go back to Alabama. Go back to South Carolina. Go back to Georgia. Go back to Louisiana. Go back to the slums and ghettos of our Northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed, "We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day down in Alabama - with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification - one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream that one day "every valley shall be exalted and every hill and mountain shall be made low. The rough places will be made plain and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.' This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we shall be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. And this will be the day. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning, "my country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountain side, let freedom ring.' And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire; let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York; let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado; let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that. Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia; let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee; let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all God's children, black men and white men, Jews and gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free at last. Free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last."

20 March on Washington in 1963 Hear Dr. King’s “I Have a Dream” speech at timeforkids.com/dream In 1963, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington DC Dr. MLK Jr. gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech to over 250,000 people! “I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed, "We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content, will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquillity in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of the revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plain of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force; and the marvelous new militancy, which has engulfed the Negro community, must not lead us to a distrust of all white people. For many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we talk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied? We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality; we can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of cities; we cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one; we can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating "For Whites Only;' we cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No! no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until "justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream." I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi. Go back to Alabama. Go back to South Carolina. Go back to Georgia. Go back to Louisiana. Go back to the slums and ghettos of our Northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed, "We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day down in Alabama - with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification - one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream that one day "every valley shall be exalted and every hill and mountain shall be made low. The rough places will be made plain and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.' This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we shall be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. And this will be the day. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning, "my country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountain side, let freedom ring.' And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire; let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York; let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado; let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that. Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia; let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee; let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, and when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all God's children, black men and white men, Jews and gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: "Free at last. Free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last."

21 Opposition to the Vietnam War
During the Vietnam War, King began to rethink his mission and turned his focus from racial discrimination to problems of poverty and economic injustice. King expressed his disenchantment with President Johnson’s Vietnam policies.

22 Lorraine Hotel Memphis, Tennessee
April 4, 1968, the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated.

23 MLK’s Last March

24

25 MLK Day is Signed Into Law
President Ronald Reagan signs into law a National Day for remembrance of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. President Ronald Reagan signs a law making MLK day, the 3rd Monday of January, near the time of King’s birthday.

26 Martin Luther King Jr. vs. Malcolm X
                      I Have A Dream Today Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or the darkness of destructive selfishness. This is the judgment. Life's most persistent and urgent question is: What are you doing for others? -- Martin L. King                                                              

27 "Violence as a way of achieving racial justice is both impractical and immoral. It is impractical because it is a descending spiral ending in destruction for all. The old law of an eye for an eye leaves everybody blind. It is immoral because it seeks to humiliate the opponent rather than win his understanding; it seeks to annihilate rather than to convert. Violence is immoral because it thrives on hatred rather than love. It destroys community and makes brotherhood impossible. It leaves society in monologue rather than dialogue. Violence ends by defeating itself. It creates bitterness in the survivors and brutality in the destroyers." Martin Luther King, Jr. "I think there are plenty of good people in America, but there are also plenty of bad people in America and the bad ones are the ones who seem to have all the power and be in these positions to block things that you and I need. Because this is the situation, you and I have to preserve the right to do what is necessary to bring an end to that situation, and it doesn't mean that I advocate violence, but at the same time I am not against using violence in self-defense. I don't even call it violence when it's self-defense, I call it intelligence." Malcolm X

28 Nonviolent Resistance
“…this is not a method for cowards; it does resist. The nonviolent resister is…nonaggressive in the sense that he is not physically aggressive toward his opponent. But his mind and emotions are always active, constantly seeking to persuade the opponent that he is mistaken. This method is passive physically…but spiritually it is dynamically aggressive… This great weapon, which we first tried out in Montgomery in the bus boycott…has become instrumental in the greatest mass-action crusade for freedom that has occurred in America since the Revolutionary War.”

29 Nonviolent Resistance
“It was routine for us to collect hundreds of knives from our own ranks before the demonstrations, in case of momentary weakness….There were lots of provocations, not only the screaming white hoodlums(無賴) lining the sidewalks, but also groups of Negro militants talking about guerrilla warfare. We had some gang leaders and members marching with us. I remember walking with the Blackstone Rangers while bottles were flying from the sidelines, and I saw their noses being broken and blood flowing from their wounds; and I saw them continue and not retaliate(報復), not one of them, with violence.”


Download ppt "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google