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**Lecture 7: Spread Spectrum**

Anders Västberg

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**Concepts Spread Spectrum Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)**

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Generating Spread Sequences

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**Spread Spectrum Communication System**

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**Advantage of Spread Spectrum Systems**

Immunity from noise, interference and multipath distortion Hiding and encrypting signals Several users can use the same bandwidth at the same time => Code Division Multiple Access

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**Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum**

2 𝑘 carrier frequencies forming 2 𝑘 channels The transmission hops between channels, where the spreading code dictates the sequence of channels. The transmitter and receiver uses the same spreading code and are synchronized

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Frequency Hopping

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FHSS-System

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FHSS using MFSK MFSK (multiple FSK) signal is translated to a new frequency every Tc seconds M=2L L number of bits, M number of signal elements For data rate of R: duration of a bit: T = 1/R seconds duration of signal element: Ts = LT seconds Tc Ts - slow-frequency-hop spread spectrum Tc < Ts - fast-frequency-hop spread spectrum

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Slow FHSS

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Fast FHSS

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**Performance of FHSS 𝑊 𝑠 = 2 𝑘 𝑊 𝑑**

𝑊 𝑠 = 2 𝑘 𝑊 𝑑 If k is large, 𝑊 𝑠 ≫ 𝑊 𝑑 , then the systems is resistant to interference and noise Interference signal has the power 𝑆 𝑖 𝐸 𝑏 𝑁 0 = 𝐸 𝑏 𝑊 𝑑 𝑆 𝑖 in a normal MFSK system 𝐸 𝑏 𝑁 0 = 𝐸 𝑏 𝑊 𝑑 𝑆 𝑖 / 2 𝑘 = 𝐸 𝑏 𝑊 𝑑 𝑆 𝑖 ∙ 2 𝑘 in a FHSS system

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**Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum**

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DSSS

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DSSS Performance

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**Processing Gain The signal to noise ratio has a processing gain of:**

𝐺 𝑝 = 𝑊 𝑠 𝑊 𝑑

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CDMA

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CDMA Example

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**Categories of Spreading Sequences**

Spreading Sequence Categories PN sequences Orthogonal codes For FHSS systems PN sequences most common For DSSS systems not employing CDMA For DSSS CDMA systems

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PN Sequences PN generator produces periodic sequence that appears to be random PN Sequences Generated by an algorithm using initial seed Sequence isn’t statistically random but will pass many test of randomness Sequences referred to as pseudorandom numbers or pseudonoise sequences Unless algorithm and seed are known, the sequence is impractical to predict

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**Important PN Properties**

Randomness Uniform distribution Balance property Run property Independence Correlation property Unpredictability

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**Linear Feedback Shift Register Implementation**

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**Properties of M-Sequences**

Property 1: Has 2n-1 ones and 2n-1-1 zeros Property 2: For a window of length n slid along output for N (=2n-1) shifts, each n-tuple appears once, except for the all zeros sequence Property 3: Sequence contains one run of ones, length n One run of zeros, length n-1 One run of ones and one run of zeros, length n-2 Two runs of ones and two runs of zeros, length n-3 2n-3 runs of ones and 2n-3 runs of zeros, length 1

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**Properties of M-Sequences**

Property 4: The periodic autocorrelation of a ± m-sequence is Where 𝑅 𝜏 = 1 𝑁 𝑘=1 𝑁 𝐵 𝑘 𝐵 𝑘−𝜏

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**PN Autocorrelation Function**

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**Definitions Correlation Cross correlation**

The concept of determining how much similarity one set of data has with another Range between –1 and 1 1 The second sequence matches the first sequence 0 There is no relation at all between the two sequences -1 The two sequences are mirror images Cross correlation The comparison between two sequences from different sources rather than a shifted copy of a sequence with itself

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**Advantages of Cross Correlation**

The cross correlation between an m-sequence and noise is low This property is useful to the receiver in filtering out noise The cross correlation between two different m-sequences is low This property is useful for CDMA applications Enables a receiver to discriminate among spread spectrum signals generated by different m-sequences

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Gold Sequences Gold sequences constructed by the XOR of two m-sequences with the same clocking Codes have well-defined cross correlation properties Only simple circuitry needed to generate large number of unique codes In following example (Figure 7.16a) two shift registers generate the two m-sequences and these are then bitwise XORed

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Gold Sequences

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**Orthogonal Codes Orthogonal codes Types**

All pairwise cross correlations are zero Fixed- and variable-length codes used in CDMA systems For CDMA application, each mobile user uses one sequence in the set as a spreading code Provides zero cross correlation among all users Types Welsh codes Variable-Length Orthogonal codes

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Walsh Codes Set of Walsh codes of length n consists of the n rows of an n ´ n Walsh matrix: W1 = (0) n = dimension of the matrix Every row is orthogonal to every other row and to the logical not of every other row Requires tight synchronization Cross correlation between different shifts of Walsh sequences is not zero

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**Homework before F9 Vad används en CRC-kod till?**

Vad är Hammingavståndet mellan och 10101? Hur många fel kan en (15,11) Hamming kod upptäcka respektive rätta?

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