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Chapter 11 9/30/2013 22:001Geog 3250. What are research ethics? Click image of Stanley Milgram below and ponder the ethical issues of his study 9/30/2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 9/30/2013 22:001Geog 3250. What are research ethics? Click image of Stanley Milgram below and ponder the ethical issues of his study 9/30/2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 9/30/ :001Geog 3250

2 What are research ethics? Click image of Stanley Milgram below and ponder the ethical issues of his study 9/30/ :002Geog 3250 Milgram “obedience” experiment 1963

3 Ethics – Core Principles Respect for persons Concern for welfare Justice 9/30/ :00Geog 32503

4 Respect for Persons People are not objects “participants” as opposed to “respondents”? Ends do not justify questionable means Respect individual dignity 9/30/ :00Geog 32504

5 Respect for Persons Informed consent Must have the capacity to give consent Information sheet – describing study Under what circumstances might informed consent be impractical?consent be impractical 9/30/ :00Geog 32505

6 Concern for Welfare All aspects of the well-being of a participant, (and researcher) 9/30/ :00Geog 32506

7 Concern for Welfare Privacy Remain anonymous Confidentiality Information kept secure and not shared with others 9/30/ :00Geog 32507

8 Anonymity Example For sensitive questions in a face-to- face structured survey questionnaire Flip coin – “heads” = truthful; “tails” = always “yes” At least 50% of answers are (theoretically) “yes” – used to calculate ‘actual’ yes:no ratio 9/30/ :008Geog 3250

9 Anonymity Random Response Example Take out a coin Flip the coin Don’t show anyone (this part is important) Memorize the result 9/30/ :00Geog Don’t have a coin? random.org coin flip

10 Anonymity Random Response Example Answer the following according to your coin flip at polleverywhere: polleverywhere Have you ever cheated on an exam at University? Phone # is: Yes = No = /30/ :00Geog = truthful answer= answer “yes” even if the truth is “no” headstails Do your coin flip first to know if you should be truthful – see above

11 Anonymity Example Cont’d – calculating “yes”s Since at least ½ of “yes” forced by coin flip (see poll responses here):poll responses here % of “yes” in excess of 50% * 2 e.g., if 80% yes, then 80%-50% = 30% * 2 = 60% So when 80% respond “yes”, the true value of yes’s is very close to 60% and therefore 40% no. Why only “very close”? assumes tails and heads subsamples are sufficiently large and unbiased Practical problems with this approach? 9/30/ :0011Geog 3250 Don’t have a coin? random.org coin flip

12 Right to Privacy Humphreys Tearoom Trade 1970 “homosexual encounters in public places” Watch queen Follow-up interviews with deception using licence plates 9/30/ :00Geog

13 Right to Privacy What is not fair game for research on the internet? 9/30/ :00Geog

14 Privacy and Confidentiality Right to withdraw at any time Stated in letter of information/informed consent Confidentiality Question: If somebody withdraws, what should happen to the data gathered about them to the point they withdrew? 9/30/ :00Geog

15 Justice Burdens and benefits spread evenly across society 9/30/ :00Geog

16 Justice What might be some “benefits” of social research? If direct benefits – avoid exclusion! 9/30/ :00Geog

17 Justice Costs/harms to well-being Loss of self-esteem, shame Stress Loss of social position … 9/30/ :00Geog

18 Ethics Boards Group of researchers (professors) Required before funds released for study 9/30/ :00Geog

19 Justice and Ethics Boards Click on the images below to learn about follow-ups to Milgram… 9/30/ :0019Geog 3250 Prison guard “Cool Hand Luke” 1967 Stanford Prison Experiment 1971 – “Guard” Stanford Prison Experiment 1971 – Zimbardo No ethics boards Warning: this video contains images of Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse that appeared in the news media – they contain nudity and are potentially disturbing – 00:31- 01:08 “The Experiment 2002 – Reicher and Haslam Ethics board approved

20 Ethical version of “Milgram” Obedience Study? The “150 volt solution” – first protest 9/30/ :0020Geog 3250 Burger “obedience” experiment 2009 that hurts!

21 Workout your “core” Tri-Council Core2 tutorial – click image (2 hrs) All who will be doing field research for their term project must show their certificate of completion 9/30/ :00Geog


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