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Space Colonization Terra-forming ASTR 1420 Lecture 26 Not in the Textbook.

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Presentation on theme: "Space Colonization Terra-forming ASTR 1420 Lecture 26 Not in the Textbook."— Presentation transcript:

1 Space Colonization Terra-forming ASTR 1420 Lecture 26 Not in the Textbook

2 Space Colonization Space colonization in this lecture is a narrow sense : colonization by human and in the Solar System only (say within next few millennia). Also known as space settlement, space habitation, etc. Also known as space settlement, space habitation, etc. Space colonization = self-sufficient human habitation outside Earth o on planets o on satellites o In free space o outside the Solar System eventually

3 Reasons why some humans will live in Space Survival of our species Survival of our species $$$ : solar power satellites, asteroid mining, space manufacturing, etc. $$$ : solar power satellites, asteroid mining, space manufacturing, etc. Resources : sufficient supply of rare materials Resources : sufficient supply of rare materials lessen the burden on the Earth lessen the burden on the Earth spread our beauty(?) to the Universe spread our beauty(?) to the Universe “The long-term survival of the human race is at risk as long as it is confined to a single planet. Sooner or later, disasters such as an asteroid collision or nuclear war could wipe us all out. But once we spread out into space and establish independent colonies, our future should be safe.”Stephen Hawking Insulin crystal growth in space (left) versus on Earth (right)

4 Space solar power station (immediate feature)

5 Space Solar Power Station Solar energy is abundant in the space (no night, no cloud, no atmosphere). Solar energy is abundant in the space (no night, no cloud, no atmosphere). Energy (watts/m 2 ) = 1366 / d 2, (d is distance in AU) Energy (watts/m 2 ) = 1366 / d 2, (d is distance in AU) In developed countries, energy usage ~ 1000 watts/person In developed countries, energy usage ~ 1000 watts/person Export created energy back to Earth Export created energy back to Earth

6 Things to be considered for space habitats mass per person mass per person radiation shielding radiation shielding minimum size minimum size leakage rates leakage rates cost cost schedule schedule

7 Materials and Energy using material from Earth is very expensive due to larger gravity of Earth. using material from Earth is very expensive due to larger gravity of Earth. o Also, large-scale projects will impact the Earth community o Use materials from Moon, Mars, large asteroids  however, these objects lack volatiles (Hydrogen and Nitrogen). Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids have high content of water ice and other volatiles. Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids have high content of water ice and other volatiles. Mars and Moon colonies may need to use nuclear energy Mars and Moon colonies may need to use nuclear energy o waste heats?  requires a large radiator!

8 Transportation and Communication Transportation Transportation o expect millions of shuttle launches..  requires cheaper and less pollutant transportation devices. o hypersonic spaceplane, space elevator, mass driver, etc. o all other rocket technologies we studied last lecture! Communication Communication o for more distant colonies (e.g., Mars), a real time communication is impractical due to the light travel time (7 – 44 minutes lag). o or voice mails…

9 To prevent inbreeding  reduced fertility, genetic disorders, infant mortality, malfunctioning immune system, etc. To prevent inbreeding  reduced fertility, genetic disorders, infant mortality, malfunctioning immune system, etc. In 2002, anthropologist, John H. Moore. In 2002, anthropologist, John H. Moore. population of would allow normal reproduction for 60—80 generations (~2,000 population for a long-term survival). “50/500” rule: conservation biologists, 50 is the minimum to prevent an unacceptable rate of inbreeding, 500 is required to main overall genetic variability. “50/500” rule: conservation biologists, 50 is the minimum to prevent an unacceptable rate of inbreeding, 500 is required to main overall genetic variability. Minimum population size

10 Life support We need air, water, food, mild temperature, and gravity. We need air, water, food, mild temperature, and gravity. In space, closed ecological systems must recycle (or import) resources In space, closed ecological systems must recycle (or import) resources Nuclear submarine : carry out missions for months without resurfacing Nuclear submarine : carry out missions for months without resurfacing o although they recycle oxygen, it is not “closed” system. o they extract oxygen from sea water and dump CO 2 outside. Genetic engineering, terrahumanism, cyborg Genetic engineering, terrahumanism, cyborg to be more compatible with the environment? Radiation protection: Radiation protection: against harmful cosmic rays and solar wind. o Either we need 5—10 tons of blocking (absorbing) material per square meter of surface habitat area. Or we can make the hull-metal electric to protect against charged particles. o Two experiments; 1991 and 1994

11 Biosphere 2 Biosphere 2 in Arizona Biosphere 2 in Arizona o a small, complex, manmade biosphere supported 8 people for 1+ years! o after 1 year, oxygen had to be replenished.

12 Bernal Sphere a type of space habitat intended as a long-term home for permanent residents, first proposed in 1929 by John Desmond Bernal (Irish Scientist). a type of space habitat intended as a long-term home for permanent residents, first proposed in 1929 by John Desmond Bernal (Irish Scientist).

13 O’Neil’s habitat Good locations are L4 & L5 points. Good locations are L4 & L5 points.

14 Other variants Toroidal and Spherical colonies. Bernal Spheres.

15 Objections Even if the technology becomes available, and the costs of deploying a program relatively low, and the likelihood of success relatively high, only a small number of people would directly benefit from a colony (either enthusiastic colonists or high risk commercial interests), leaving most of financial burden on the public. Even if the technology becomes available, and the costs of deploying a program relatively low, and the likelihood of success relatively high, only a small number of people would directly benefit from a colony (either enthusiastic colonists or high risk commercial interests), leaving most of financial burden on the public. Humans are treated as assets Humans are treated as assets If the main reason is “insurance” against the annihilation of human, then why people on Earth need to pay for something useful only after their deaths? If the main reason is “insurance” against the annihilation of human, then why people on Earth need to pay for something useful only after their deaths?

16 Counter arguments argument of need argument of need “population growth and limited resources on Earth” By 2040, population will be 10 billion! argument of cost argument of cost IRAQ+Afghanistan war = $813 billion + $632 = about $1.445 trillion argument of benefits argument of benefits despite the high cost of initial investment… space colonies can provides precious metals, gem stones, power, etc.

17 Space mining the smallest Earth-crossing asteroid 3554 Amun (see orbit) is a mile-wide (2 km) lump of iron, nickel, cobalt, platinum, and other metals; it contains 30 times as much metal as Humans have mined throughout history, although it is only the smallest of dozens of known metallic asteroids and worth perhaps USD $20 trillion if mined slowly to meet demand at 2001 market prices. the smallest Earth-crossing asteroid 3554 Amun (see orbit) is a mile-wide (2 km) lump of iron, nickel, cobalt, platinum, and other metals; it contains 30 times as much metal as Humans have mined throughout history, although it is only the smallest of dozens of known metallic asteroids and worth perhaps USD $20 trillion if mined slowly to meet demand at 2001 market prices.

18 Terraforming

19 Terraforming process of deliberately modifying atmosphere, temperature, surface topography, or ecology of celestial objects to fit our purposes = planetary engineering

20 Terraforming Mars Two things: atmosphere and heating Two things: atmosphere and heating Once it is terraformed to be similar to Earth, will it be able to sustain the condition over geological timescales (10s Myrs)? Once it is terraformed to be similar to Earth, will it be able to sustain the condition over geological timescales (10s Myrs)? Small size is the main issue… Small size is the main issue… Re-heating the core of Mars is considered an impractical solution Re-heating the core of Mars is considered an impractical solution the slow loss of atmosphere could possibly be counteracted with ongoing low-level artificial terraforming activities. the slow loss of atmosphere could possibly be counteracted with ongoing low-level artificial terraforming activities.

21 How? Bring one of ice moons of Jupiter or Saturn Bring one of ice moons of Jupiter or Saturn Put several, large solar mirrors to direct light to the Martian surface (to increase T) Put several, large solar mirrors to direct light to the Martian surface (to increase T) Magnetic field!!! Magnetic field!!!  induce an impact with ~1,000 km object to melt the whole thing which will re-liquefy the core

22

23 Terraforming Venus removing most of the planet's dense 9 MPa carbon dioxide atmosphere removing most of the planet's dense 9 MPa carbon dioxide atmosphere reducing the planet's 450 °C (850 K) surface temperature reducing the planet's 450 °C (850 K) surface temperature Addition of O 2 Addition of O 2 Reduce the length of day(?) : 117 Earth days Reduce the length of day(?) : 117 Earth days

24 Terraforming Venus How? Solar shade at L1 Solar shade at L1 reflector on the ground or in the atmosphere reflector on the ground or in the atmosphere use of genetically engineered bacteria (CO 2  other organics) use of genetically engineered bacteria (CO 2  other organics) induce an impact with km asteroid (to eliminate atmosphere) induce an impact with km asteroid (to eliminate atmosphere)

25 Europa a good potential candidate for terraforming a good potential candidate for terraforming One advantage to Europa is the presence of liquid water One advantage to Europa is the presence of liquid waterDifficulties huge radiation (in the middle of Jupiter’s radiation belt) huge radiation (in the middle of Jupiter’s radiation belt) o require the building of massive radiation deflectors, which is currently impractical satellite is covered in ice and would have to be heated satellite is covered in ice and would have to be heated need for oxygen  electrolysis of ocean water need for oxygen  electrolysis of ocean water

26 In summary… Important Concepts Space habitat Pros and cons of space habitats Space mining Various designs Terraforming Mars, Venus, etc. Important Terms Terraforming Chapter/sections covered in this lecture : Not from the textbook


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