2CognitionThinking, or cognition, refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and communicating.Metacognition
3What is thought? Based upon… Our concept of men may include all of the following guys….What is thought?Based upon…Concepts -- Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people…Form concepts fromMental ImagesPrototype(typical example)But they are based on our prototypes. Ideal male...
4Category Hierarchies We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Part of our Schemata.Courtesy of Christine Brune
5Problem solving strategies include: Trial and ErrorAlgorithmsHeuristicsInsightPreview Question 2: What strategies assist problem solving, and what obstacles hinder it?
7S P L O Y O C H Y G Algorithms Exhaust all possibilities Guarantee the right solution to a problem.Usually by using a formula. (Computers)sometimes impractical (very time consuming)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0xgjUhEG3US P L O Y O C H Y G
8P S Y C H O L O G Y Heuristics A rule of thumb/ principle that generally can be used to make a judgment or solve a problem.It is fast, but is…Prone to errorsTwo major types of heuristics….P S Y C H O L O G Y
9Representative Heuristic Who went to Harvard?This guy did not go to Harvard (but he looks like he did).Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, a particular prototype.Like thinking everyone from FC is a prep, NA is ghetto, and NH is a hickor someone with glasses is nerdy,or a blonde is not smart.If I tell you that Sonia Dara is a Sports Illustrated swimsuit model, you would make certain quick judgments (heuristics) about her…like about her interests or intelligence.She is an economics major at Harvard University.
10Availability Heuristic Which place would you be more scared of getting mugged or even murdered?Judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that initially come to mind.Vivid examples in the news often cause an availability heuristic.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2_wkv1Gx2vMThe Bronx, NYGary, INThe crime rate (per capita) of Gary, Indiana is MUCH higher than the Bronx. But when you think of crime, which town comes to mind?
11InsightInsight involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem.Humans and animals have insight.Brain imaging and EEG studies suggest that when an insight strikes (the “Aha” experience), it activates the right temporal cortexGrande using boxes toobtain food
12CREATIVITY Almost impossible to define. Some correlation between creativity and intelligence.Convergent Thinking versus Divergent ThinkingThink of as many uses as you can for a …… Divergent thinking (more than one answer)
14Mental set a.k.a. rigidity The tendency to fall into established thought patterns.
15Fixation An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. An example of fixation is functional fixedness (inability to see a new use for an object).The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
23Confirmation BiasWe look for evidence to confirm our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts them.For example, if one believes that all Italians are fit and go tanning, then they turn on MTV.Look…I knew it was true!!!But is it really?2 – 4 – 6
24Framing90% of the population will be saved with this medication…..or10% of the population will die despite this medication.You should not drink more than two drinks per day….orYou should not drink more than 730 drinks a year.What is the best way to market ground beef — as 25% fat or 75% lean?The way a problem is presented can drastically effect the way we view it.
25Heuristics can lead to Overconfidence… A tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.Belief Perseverance- maintaining a belief even after it has been proven wrong.Belief Bias- People will tend to accept any and all conclusions that fit in with their systems of belief, without challenge or any deep consideration of what they are actually agreeing with.Exaggerated Fear