2 Thinking, or cognition, refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering, and communicating. Metacognition
3 What is thought? Based upon… Concepts -- Mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people … Form concepts from 1.Mental Images 2.Prototype (typical example) Our concept of men may include all of the following guys…. But they are based on our prototypes. Ideal male...
4 Category Hierarchies We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Part of our Schemata. Courtesy of Christine Brune
5 Problem Solving Problem solving strategies include: 1.Trial and Error 2.Algorithms 3.Heuristics 4.Insight
7 Algorithms Exhaust all possibilities Guarantee the right solution to a problem. Usually by using a formula. (Computers) sometimes impractical (very time consuming) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0xgjUhEG3U S P L O Y O C H Y G
8 Heuristics A rule of thumb/ principle that generally can be used to make a judgment or solve a problem. It is fast, but is… Prone to errors Two major types of heuristics…. P S Y C H O L O G Y
9 Representative Heuristic Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, a particular prototype. Like thinking everyone from FC is a prep, NA is ghetto, and NH is a hick or someone with glasses is nerdy, or a blonde is not smart. If I tell you that Sonia Dara is a Sports Illustrated swimsuit model, you would make certain quick judgments (heuristics) about her…like about her interests or intelligence. She is an economics major at Harvard University. Who went to Harvard? This guy did not go to Harvard (but he looks like he did).
10 AvailabilityAvailability Heuristic Judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that initially come to mind. Vivid examples in the news often cause an availability heuristic. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2_wkv1Gx2vM Which place would you be more scared of getting mugged or even murdered? The Bronx, NY Gary, IN The crime rate (per capita) of Gary, Indiana is MUCH higher than the Bronx. But when you think of crime, which town comes to mind?
11 Insight Insight involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem. Humans and animals have insight. Brain imaging and EEG studies suggest that when an insight strikes (the “Aha” experience), it activates the right temporal cortex Grande using boxes to obtain food
CREATIVITY Almost impossible to define. Some correlation between creativity and intelligence. Convergent Thinking versus Divergent Thinking Think of as many uses as you can for a …… Divergent thinking (more than one answer)
14 Mental set a.k.a. rigidity The tendency to fall into established thought patterns.
15 Fixation An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. An example of fixation is functional fixedness (inability to see a new use for an object). The Matchstick Problem: How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
23 Confirmation Bias We look for evidence to confirm our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts them. For example, if one believes that all Italians are fit and go tanning, then they turn on MTV. Look…I knew it was true!!! But is it really? 2 – 4 – 6
24 Framing 90% of the population will be saved with this medication…..or 10% of the population will die despite this medication. You should not drink more than two drinks per day….or You should not drink more than 730 drinks a year. What is the best way to market ground beef — as 25% fat or 75% lean? The way a problem is presented can drastically effect the way we view it.
25 Heuristics can lead to Overconfidence… A tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments. Belief Perseverance- maintaining a belief even after it has been proven wrong. Belief Bias- People will tend to accept any and all conclusions that fit in with their systems of belief, without challenge or any deep consideration of what they are actually agreeing with. Exaggerated Fear