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UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Climate Change & Tourism by Air Climate Change & Tourism by Air 1.Strategic Issues – Lipman 2.Base Research.

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Presentation on theme: "UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Climate Change & Tourism by Air Climate Change & Tourism by Air 1.Strategic Issues – Lipman 2.Base Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Climate Change & Tourism by Air Climate Change & Tourism by Air 1.Strategic Issues – Lipman 2.Base Research - Becken 3.Climate & Aviation – Lyle 1.Strategic Issues – Lipman 2.Base Research - Becken 3.Climate & Aviation – Lyle

2 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Air Transport and Climate Change Chris Lyle APEC Aviation Emissions Task Force Auckland, New Zealand 'Managing Tourist-related Aviation Emissions‘ 31 July 2008

3 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Q: Which statement is correct? Over the last 4 decades aircraft fuel efficiency - and consequently environmental performance - has improved 70 % OR Since 1990, the Kyoto Protocol base year, aviation’s CO 2 emissions have risen by 80 % A: Both, significant improvements in fuel intensity have been well below traffic growth

4 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Air transport and climate change (IPCC, 1999 and 2007) “Small” now in terms of global CO 2 emissions (c. 2%) but: Somewhat larger in terms of all GHG emissions (> CO 2 ) plus altitude effects (plus uncertain cirrus cloudiness effect) - “total radiative forcing” Technical options at hand insufficient to counter anticipated traffic growth Thus continuing growth in both absolute and proportional contribution Cumulative: CO 2 effective residence time in atmosphere 50 – 100 years plus

5 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Air transport and climate change: Kyoto Protocol International air transport excluded from Kyoto targets, instead Article 2.2 of Kyoto calls on States to address air transport emissions working through ICAO

6 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Air transport and climate change: ICAO and Kyoto ICAO has done extensive work, especially on the technical front, but in practice continues to have a very difficult remit as far as economic instruments are concerned Kyoto targets apply only to industrialized countries (39 of 40 have ratified) ICAO has 190 Member States and provisions concerning equal treatment (eg Articles 11 and 15 of Chicago Convention)

7 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Instruments for dealing with air transport and climate change A.Airframe/engine technology, alternative fuels, ATM and operational practices B.Alternative modes of transport and communication C.Operating restrictions and rationing D.Levies (charges, taxes and duties) E.Emissions trading F.Carbon offset

8 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs D. Levies (charges, taxes and duties) Charges require agreement on cost base and on territorial application (ICAO has ruled out globally) Taxes face legal obstacles at international level (ICAO has ruled out globally) UK in February 2007 doubled “Air Passenger Duty” (is now revising), Netherlands in July 2008 applied similar “duty”, other countries considering

9 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs E. Emissions trading “Closed” intra-airline trading impractical (ICAO has ruled out) “Open” trading with other sectors allows air transport to continue to increase emissions, ICAO supports in principle and has developed guidance EU intends to include air transport in CO 2 “open” trading from 2012, ICAO Assembly (Sep 2007) rejected application to non-EU airlines on intercontinental routes (without “mutual agreement”), but EU is pressing ahead

10 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs E. Emissions trading EntityAviation EU (and EEA)Domestic, international intra- and inter-regional from 2012 AustraliaConsidering domestic from 2010 New ZealandDomestic from 2011 Japan (experiment voluntary)Not as yet Republic of KoreaNot as yet MMGA, RGGI and WCI →Canada/US? Speculative

11 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs E. Emissions trading Long way from a global market generally, and particularly for aviation Mutual recognition and linkage between schemes and with the CDM a way forward JI, CDM and emissions trading not available under Kyoto for international air transport Post-Kyoto air transport provisions need to be changed for significant progress If no progress by COP/15….disjointed proliferation of unilateral levies, operating restrictions, rationing

12 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs A tourism perspective on air transport and climate change Principle of Contraction and Convergence to apply Air transport integral to tourism, not treated in isolation Mitigation measures to reflect coherence with poverty alleviation strategies Technology transfer and financing to poor countries (in part through CDM/ET revenues) Preferential treatment for air services supporting tourism in developing countries Even-handed approach to primary users (tourism and freight) and amongst modes of transport Recycling of CDM/ET revenues within the industry (!)

13 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs The “C” words for Travelers and Regulators

14 UNWTO - Committed to Tourism Travel and the MDGs Further information “Tourism, Air Transport and Climate Change: A Discussion Paper”


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