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CS-378: Game Technology Lecture #9: More Mapping Prof. Okan Arikan University of Texas, Austin Thanks to James O’Brien, Steve Chenney, Zoran Popovic, Jessica.

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Presentation on theme: "CS-378: Game Technology Lecture #9: More Mapping Prof. Okan Arikan University of Texas, Austin Thanks to James O’Brien, Steve Chenney, Zoran Popovic, Jessica."— Presentation transcript:

1 CS-378: Game Technology Lecture #9: More Mapping Prof. Okan Arikan University of Texas, Austin Thanks to James O’Brien, Steve Chenney, Zoran Popovic, Jessica Hodgins V

2 Today Shaders Nvidia Quadro FX 4500

3 Shadow Buffer Algorithms Compute z-buffer from light viewpoint Put it into the shadow buffer Render normal view, compare world locations of points in the z- buffer and shadow buffer Have to transform pts into same coordinate system Problems: Resolution is a big issue – both depth and spatial Only some hardware supports the required computations But, the Cg Tutorial book gives a fragment shader to do it

4 Programmable Hardware Earliest hardware was fixed-function – no control over processing Then came configurable hardware – fixed function units, but you had some control over how information flowed Stencil buffer and tests are an example Multi-texturing is another example Most recent hardware is programmable Just like a CPU is programmable, but not quite Nvidia GeForce FX, ATI 9700

5 Modified Pipeline Replace transform and lighting with vertex shader Vertex shader must now do transform and lighting But can also do more Replace texture stages with fragment (pixel) shader Previously, texture stages were only per-pixel operations Fragment shader must do texturing

6 Vertex Shader Motivation Old graphics hardware did all the work on the CPU – the “graphics card” was a color buffer and DA converter Then came hardware rasterizers Knew how to draw polygons on the screen, and maybe interpolate Later came texture access in hardware (we’re in the mid-90s) Important: Per-vertex transformations and lighting (t&l) were on the CPU Then hardware t&l came to the commodity market Had been present in $20,000+ machines for a few years, now cost $300 But the functionality (the types of transforms and lighting equations) was fixed in the hardware

7 Vertex Shaders To shift more processing to the hardware, general programmability was required The tasks that come before transformation vary widely Putting every possible lighting equation in hardware is impractical A vertex program runs on a vertex shader Vertex programs can modify the vertex between submission to the pipeline and primitive assembly Why bother? Why not leave it all on the CPU?

8 Vertex Program Properties Run for every vertex, independently Access to all per-vertex properties Some registers - NOT retained from one vertex to the next Some constant memory Programmer specifies what’s in that memory Compute on the available data Output to fixed registers – the next stage of the pipeline

9 Figure 2: The inputs and outputs of vertex shaders. Arrows indicate read-only, write-only, or read- write. IO for Vertex Shaders (Circa 2001)

10 Vertex Programs All operations work on vectors Scalars are stored as vectors with the same value in each coordinate Instruction set varies: Numerical operations: add, multiply, reciprocal square root, dot product, … LIT which implements the Phong lighting model in one instruction Can re-arrange (swizzle) and negate vectors before doing op Matrices can be automatically mapped into registers No branches in some hardware, but can be done with other instructions Set a value to 0/1 based on a comparison, then multiply and add

11 Vertex Program Example # blend normal and position v=v 1 +(1-  )v 2 MOV R3, v[3] ; MOV R5, v[2] ; ADD R8, v[1], -R3 ; ADD R6, v[0], -R5 ; MAD R8, v[15].x, R8, R3 MAD R6, v[15].x, R6, R5 ; # transform normal to eye space DP3 R9.x, R8, c[12] ; DP3 R9.y, R8, c[13] ; DP3 R9.z, R8, c[14] ; # transform position and output DP4 [HPOS].x, R6, c[4] ; DP4 [HPOS].y, R6, c[5] ; DP4 [HPOS].z, R6, c[6] ; DP4 [HPOS].w, R6, c[7] ; # normalize normal DP3 R9.w, R9, R9 ; RSQ R9.w, R9.w ; MUL R9, R9.w, R9 ; # apply lighting and output color DP3 R0.x, R9, c[20] ; DP3 R0.y, R9, c[22] ; MOV, c[21] ; LIT R1, R0 ; DP3 o[COL0], c[21], R1 ;

12 Fragment Shader Motivation The idea of per-fragment shaders have been around for a long time Renderman is the best example, but not at all real time In a traditional pipeline, the only major per-pixel operation is texture mapping All lighting, etc. is done in the vertex processing, before primitive assembly and rasterization In fact, a fragment is only screen position, color, and tex- coords

13 Fragment Shader Generic Structure

14 Fragment Shaders Fragment shaders operate on fragments in place of the texturing hardware After rasterization, before any fragment tests or blending Input: The fragment, with screen position, depth, color, and a set of texture coordinates Access to textures and some constant data and registers Compute RGBA values for the fragment, and depth Can also kill a fragment Two types of fragment shaders: register combiners (GeForce4) and fully programmable (GeForceFX, Radeon 9700)

15 Functionality At a minimum, we want to be able to do Phong interpolation How do you get normal vector info? How do you get the light? How do you get the specular color? How do you get the world position? Is a fragment shader much good without a vertex shader? Can you simulate a pixel shader in the CPU? Fragment programs, like vertex programs, are hard to write in assembler

16 Shading Languages Programming shading hardware is still a difficult process Akin to writing assembly language programs Shading languages and accompanying compilers allow users to write shaders in high level languages Two examples: Microsoft’s HLSL (part of DirectX 9) and Nvidia’s Cg (compatible with HLSL) Renderman is the ultimate example, but it’s not real time

17 Cg I’m not going to tell you much about it – pick up the tutorial book and learn about it yourselves It looks like C or C++ Actually a language and a runtime environment Can compile ahead of time, or compile on the fly Why compile on the fly? What it can do is tightly tied to the hardware How does it know which hardware, and how to use it?

18 Vertex Program Example

19 Pixel Program Example

20 Cg Runtime There is a sequence of commands to get your Cg program onto the hardware See the Cg Tutorial for more details (Appendix B)

21 Other Things to Try Many ways of doing bump mapping Shadow volume construction with vertex shaders Key observation: degenerate primitives are not rendered Animation skinning in hardware (deformations) General purpose computations on matrices, such as fluid dynamics The Nvidia web site has lots of examples of different effects, as does the Cg tutorial book

22 At the end of the day !!!

23 What do we do now Guest Lecture March 21 st. Bill Mark Q & A You MUST have questions

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