Presentation on theme: "V1 Workplace Ergonomics Nigel Heaton. 1 What is ergonomics? “ergon” = work, “nomos” = system or Law Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline."— Presentation transcript:
V1 Workplace Ergonomics Nigel Heaton
1 What is ergonomics? “ergon” = work, “nomos” = system or Law Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theoretical principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well being and overall system performance. (IEA, 2000)
2 Fitting to People “Ergonomics produces and integrates knowledge from the human sciences to match jobs, systems, products and environments to the physical and mental abilities and limitations of people. In doing so it seeks to safeguard safety, health and well-being whilst optimising efficiency and performance.” (ISO, 1999)
3 People at work Taylorism - ‘The principles of scientific management’ Gilbreths - work study & ‘The Psychology of Management’ Mayo (et al) 1927-1932, People are not machines Maslow 1954 - people are more complex Herzberg (et al.) 1959 - Motivators versus Hygiene factors
People have expectations 4 Put the numbers 0 – 9 on the buttons
6 Ergonomics & the law H&S Intervention (1990’s - the “six pack”) Need to adopt an ergonomics approach Not just DSE & MHO PUWER – it’s about “use”; PPE – it’s about “fit” Even the original Mgt. Directive – “take an ergonomics approach” Litigation (Personal injury claims) The RSI debate Stress
9 Anthropometry Anthropometry - the study of body measurements (e.g. size, strength, weight). Anthropometric data exists for many measurements. Data changes over time (we are all taller & fatter). Data is population specific (e.g. young vs old; US vs English).
10 Use of anthropometric data Understanding body shape affects sales (e.g. ‘Petite’ ranges; car design). Fundamental to design How high should a door be? What range of adjustment should we provide? But note difference between ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ dimensions (e.g. arm length v. reach envelope).
11 What is normal?
12 Musculoskeletal problems Upper limb pain Referred to as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) Sometimes referred to as ‘RSI’ (Repetitive Strain Injury) MSDs should include: Back & neck pain Leg & foot pain
13 Wrist angles
14 Working above shoulder height
15 Reaching and twisting
16 Heights for standing workstations Task dependent
17 Impact of working angle Angled work surfaces can give enormous benefits, but are often impractical.
18 Sit/stand workstations Trying to achieve the best of both worlds
19 Good workstation design? What are the right questions?
20 Using tools Task and tool factors must be considered. The aim is to achieve the best compromise
21 Materials presentation and workstation layout Fundamental design problems
22 Work height The real working height isn’t necessarily bench height
24 Layout problem What questions should have been asked by whom, when, and with what in mind?
26 Work equipment orientation
27 Work equipment usability Increasing usability through design
29 A classic control/display issue A B C D z yxw Which hob control works which ring? Which stereotypes fit? Why? Design this better
32 Simple solutions Work need not be a problem Simple intervention is cost effective and easy to do Deal with problems, if you ignore them they will get worse Apply basic ergonomics principles
Final thoughts People are influenced by all sorts but mostly… You can write their scripts 33
Ergonomics information and references
35 General reference web sites The Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors Society www.ergonomics.org.uk IOSH www.iosh.co.uk HSE www.hse.gov.uk Chartered Institute of Building Surveying Engineers www.cibse.org Croner www.croner.cch.co.uk Suzy Lamplugh Trust www.suzylamplugh.org/ Department of Health www.doh.gov.uk European Agency for S+H @ Work //agency.osha.eu.int RSI association www.rsi-uk.org
36 Contact details Human Applications The Elms Elms Grove Loughborough Leics LE11 1RG UK tel: ++ 44 1509 211866 (01509 211866) fax: ++ 44 1509 218344 (01509 218344) e-mail: email@example.com www.humanapps.co.uk