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1 A U Information & Data Analysis Professor J. Alberto Espinosa Business Analysis ITEC-455 Spring 2010.

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1 1 A U Information & Data Analysis Professor J. Alberto Espinosa Business Analysis ITEC-455 Spring 2010

2 2 Agenda Introduction to database concepts Data modeling & relational database design Transitional artifacts: the CRUD matrix – linking requirements to data design Normalization Database queries

3 3 Data Modeling Concepts

4 4 Database Management System (i.e., Database Platform) (e.g., Oracle, Access, SQL Server, etc.) Business Application 1 How Most Business Applications are Implemented: Database 2 Business Application 2 Business Application 3 Etc Database 3 Database 4 Etc. Database 1

5 5 DBMS and database work in the same computer: the user’s computer  OK for personal productivity Stand-alone DBMS Database Stand-alone DBMS (e.g., MS Access)

6 6 DBMS Server: runs the “back-end” part of the DBMS and performs most of the data management functions – e.g., queries, updates, etc. DBMS Client: runs “front-end” part of the DBMS that provides the user interface (e.g., data entry, screen displays or presentation, report formatting, query building tools) Data Request (e.g., query) DBMS in a Client/Server Environment: Better for corporate use  the DBMS has two components Database DBMS Client DBMS Server Response (e.g., query result) Retrieve, add, delete and/or update data

7 7 DBMS in a Web Server Environment: Very common when there are large numbers of users and would be impractical to deploy and install a DBSM client  access to the database is done through a browser (e.g., on-line purchases) Request (ex. get a price quote, place an order) Response (ex. query results with HTML-formatted product price or order confirmation notice)

8 8 Business to Business E-Commerce Example using XML Internet e.g., supplier e.g., buyer DBMS (e.g., Oracle) SELECT query XML Processor XML Document (e.g., Purchase Order) DBMS (e.g., MS SQL Server) INSERT query XML Processor XML Document (e.g., Purchase Order)

9 9 Most Common Database Models Hierarchical (of historical interest only) Network (of historical interest only) Relational Object Oriented (new)

10 10 For a database to be truly relational, it must comply with 12 rules defined by its inventor (Dr. E. F. Codd).12 rules No commercially available database complies with the full set of rules, but the 12 rules are used as guidelines for sound database design. Rule 1 states that data should be presented in tables Rule 2 states that data must be accessible without ambiguity We will talk more about other rules later (i.e., about entity integrity and referential integrity – stay tuned). Relational Database

11 11 A relational database must have: Tables: or “entities” Every table has a unique name Ex. Students, Courses Fields: or “columns”, “attributes” Every field has a unique name within the table Ex. Students (StudentID, StudentName, Major, Address) Ex. Courses (CourseNo, CouseName, CreditPoints, Description) Records: or “rows”, “tuples”, “instances” Every record is unique (has a unique field that identifies it) Ex. {“jdoe”, “John Doe”, “CS”, 5000 Forbes Ave.) Ex. {“MGMT ”, “MIS”, Fall 2002, “A great course”} Implications about Rule 1

12 12 Object Oriented (OO) Databases OO languages + added database functionality, or Database products + added OO programming facilities Similar to relational databases “Classes” (a grouping of similar objects -- like tables) “Objects” (an instance of a class -- like records) “Object properties” (object attributes -- like fields) Plus: –Methods (i.e., procedures or programs) Programs embedded in classes and objects –Other OO Properties (inheritance, encapsulation, etc.)

13 13 Terminology Equivalence ERD or Data Model OO DatabaseRelational Database Other Terms Used EntityClassTable InstancesObjectsRecordsRows, Tuples Relationship AttributesPropertiesFieldsColumns

14 14 Important Data Modeling Concepts

15 15 Data Modeling Goals Data integrity Avoid anomalies in the data No data redundancy Record the data in one place only Efficient data entry Duplicate data means having to enter the same data more than once Consistency Duplicate data can lead to inconsistencies when the data changes e.g., 2 different addresses for same client Flexibility and easy evolution East to maintain, update and add new tables

16 16 Data Integrity Issue #1: Enforcing Entity Integrity  Inspect Each Table

17 17 Entity Integrity Is ensuring that every record in each table in the database can be addressed (i.e., found) – this means that there each record has to have a unique identifier that is not duplicate or null (i.e., not blank) Examples: every student has an AU ID; every purchase order has a unique number; every customer has an ID Primary key (PK)  helps enforce Entity Integrity: Field(s) that uniquely identifies a record in a table (e.g., AU user ID) Entity integrity = PK is not duplicate & not blank PK can be: –A single field (e.g., UserID), or –Or more than one field (e.g., OrderNo, LineItem)

18 18 Data Integrity Issue #2: Enforce Referential Integrity  Inspect each relationship between any two tables

19 19 Is ensuring that the data that is entered in one table is consistent with data in other tables Examples: purchase orders can only be placed by valid customers; accounting transactions can only be posted to valid company accounts Foreign key (FK)  helps enforce referential Integrity: A field in a table that is a PK in another table That is, a field that “must” exist in another table This is how referential integrity is maintained Referential Integrity

20 20 Illustration: Primary and Foreign Keys PK FK

21 21 Entity, Referential Integrity PK FKPK PK, FK Database Schema: The structure of the database, which contain tables, views, constraints, relations, etc. – just about everything, except the data itself

22 22 Other Important Keys Candidate Keys: –Often there are more than one keys that could serve as a primary key –Example: Order, LineItem vs. Order, ProdID –Example: AU ID, SSN, AU Login ID –These are called candidate –Any candidate can be selected as the primary key Alternative Keys: –Once a primary key has been selected from the choice of candidate keys, the other keys (not used as PKs) are referred to as “alternative keys”

23 23 Developing Data Models also called Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD)

24 24 Data Model Example Course Registration System Instructors InstructorID LastName FirstName Telephone Addr Courses CourseNo CourseDescription InstructorID CreditPoints PreRequisites ClassroomNo Teach Enrollments StudentID CourseNo Comments Students StudentID LastName FirstName SSN Department College Major Addr Enrolls Includes 1Many 1 1 Entities Relationships

25 25 Data Model Example (MS Access equivalent) Course Registration System Teaches Enrolls Includes 1 to Many Entities Relationships Cardinality

26 26 The Textbook’s ERD Notation LastNameFirstName Telephone InstructorID InstructorID (FK) CourseDescr CreditPointsPreReqs CourseNo InstructorsCourses Teach Entities Relationships

27 27 Peter Chen’s ERD Notation Instructors PKInstructorID LastName FirstName Telephone Course PKCourseNo CourseDescription FK1InstructorID CreditPoints PreRequisites Teaches

28 28 Conceptual Data Modeling Data-oriented modeling method that describes the data and relationships among data entities Goal: capture meaning of the data 2 main ERD or data model constructs:  Entities and its attributes  Relationships between entities

29 29 Entity “An object, person, place, event or thing or which we want to record data” Equivalent to a table in a database Examples: instructors, students, classrooms, invoices, registration, machines, countries, states, etc. Entity instance: a single occurrence of an entity Example: Espinosa, KSB T58, ITEC 455 Entities can be identified in a requirements analysis description by following the use of NOUNS

30 30 Relationships Relationships describe how two entities relate to each other Relationships in a database application can be identified following the VERBS that describe how entities are associated with one another Examples: students enroll in courses countries have cities, etc.

31 31 Cardinality Cardinality is an important database concept to describe how two entities are related The Cardinality of a relationship describes how many instances of one entity can be associated with another entity The cardinality of a relationship between two entities has two components: –Maximum Cardinality: is the maximum number of instances that can be associated with the other entity – usually either 1 or many (the exact number is rarely used) –Minimum Cardinality: is the minimum number of instances that can be associated with the other entity – usually either 0 or 1 –Symbols: 0 1 Many

32 32 Cardinality (cont’d.) A relationship is fully described by describing the cardinality in both directions of the relationship: e.g., a client places zero (i.e., optional) or many orders and each order must relate to only one (i.e., mandatory) client. Examples: 1 student can only park 1 (or 0) cars  1 to (0 or) 1 1 client can place (0 or ) many orders  1 to (0 or) many 1 student can enroll in (at least 1 or) many courses and a course can have (0 or) many students  (0 or) many to (1 or) many

33 33 Example: 2 Entities, 1 Relationship Instructors PKInstructorID LastName FirstName Telephone Course PKCourseNo CourseDescription FK1InstructorID CreditPoints PreRequisites Teaches Peter Chen’s notation & MS Visio software One and only one Zero or many

34 34 ERD SYMBOLS (cont’d.) Note: high level conceptual models don’t show attributes, just entities 1 to 1 Maximum Cardinality (outer symbol) Minimum Cardinality (inner symbol) MandatoryOptional EmployeeBioData EmployeeFamilyData Has Peter Chen’s notation using Systems Architect software

35 35 ERD SYMBOLS (cont’d.) 1 to Many 1 to Many (or None) Maximum Cardinality Minimum Cardinality Mandatory Optional AdvisorStudent FacultyCourse Teaches Peter Chen’s (“crow’s feet”) notation using Systems Architect software → Advises ← Have

36 36 Many to Many Relationships? Many to Many 1 to Many 1 to Many (or None) Convert a Many-to-Many into 2 One-to-Many’s OrdersProducts Orders LineItems Intersection Table

37 37 Cardinality: 1 to 1 (MS Access notation)

38 38 Cardinality: 1 to many (MS Access notation)

39 39 Steps in data modeling Modeling 1.Identify and diagram all ENTITIES 2.Add PK attributes – i.e., implement entity integrity Ensure PK’s are non-null & non-duplicates 3.Identify and diagram all RELATIONSHIPS Note CARDINALITIES (1 to 1, 1 to n, n to n) 4.Add FK attributes – i.e., implement referential integrity (this is automatic in some tools—MS Access) 5.Add remaining attributes

40 40 ERD Example: Course Registration System Courses (CourseNo (PK), CourseDescripition, InstructorID, CreditPoints, ClassroomNo) PreRequisites (CourseNo (PK), PreRequisiteNo (PK), Comments) Students (StudentID (PK), LastName, FirstName, SSN, Department, College, Major, ) Enrollment (StudentID (PK), CourseNo (PK), Comments) Instructors (InstructorID (PK), LastName, FirstName, Telephone, ) Classrooms (ClassroomNo (PK), ClassroomName, Building, BuildingRoomNo, Equipment, Capacity) Note: PK denotes a primary key

41 41 Example: Course Registration System Step 1. Draw Entities

42 42 Example: Course Registration System Step 2. Add PK’s (undeline/separate with a line)

43 43 Instructors PKInstructorID Course PKCourseNo Teaches PreRequisites PK,FK1CourseNo PKPreRequisiteNo ClassRooms PKClassroomNo Enrollment PK,FK1StudentID PK,FK2CourseNo Students PKStudentID has Enrolls Includes Assigned Example: Course Registration System Step 3. Add Relationships (w/Cardinalities)

44 44 Example: Course Registration System Step 4. Add FK’s Instructors PKInstructorID Course PKCourseNo FK1InstructorID FK2ClassroomNo Teaches PreRequisites PK,FK1CourseNo PKPreRequisiteNo ClassRooms PKClassroomNo Enrollment PK,FK1StudentID PK,FK2CourseNo Students PKStudentID has Enrolls IncludesAssigned

45 45 Instructors PKInstructorID LastName FirstName Telephone Course PKCourseNo CourseDescription FK1InstructorID CreditPoints FK2ClassroomNo Teaches PreRequisites PK,FK1CourseNo PKPreRequisiteNo Comments ClassRooms PKClassroomNo ClassroomName Building BuildingRoomNo Equipment Capacity Enrollment PK,FK1StudentID PK,FK2CourseNo Comments Students PKStudentID LastName FirstName SSN Department College Major Has Enrolls Includes Assigned Example: Course Registration System Step 5. Add Remaining Attributes

46 46 Example: Course Registration System (in MS Access)

47 47 EXAMPLE: Package Delivery Tracking System

48 48 Example: Package Delivery Tracking System

49 49 EXAMPLE: Airline Reservation System

50 50 Example: Airline Reservation System

51 51 Final Data Modeling Step: “ Normalize” Your Design (we will discuss this later)

52 52 A U Transitional Artifact: The CRUD Matrix  Connecting Data Objects to Use Cases

53 53 Identifying Data Entities from Use Cases Identify and highlight (or bold face) all nouns in the use cases Inspect these nouns to see if they represent possible data entities (i.e., database tables) But be careful, a noun may not refer to an entity, but simply to an attribute of an entity  A data entity is something you want to collect data about (e.g., Students)  An attribute is the data you want to collect about that entity (StudentID, Name, SSN, Address)

54 54 The CRUD Matrix A “transitional artifact” is one that helps establish a relationship or cross reference between artifacts A CRUD matrix is a transitional artifact between Use Cases and Data Entities Helps ensure that the Use Cases specified have all the necessary Data Entities to handle the data needs of the application and, conversely, that the set of Data Entities identified cover the entire functionality specified in the requirements. The Use Cases, if properly specified, must describe all the actions necessary to maintain all the application’s database tables A CRUD matrix is a table that cross references which Use Cases: (C)reate, (R)ead, (U)pdate and/or (D)elete data in these objects

55 55 Developing a CRUD Matrix The CRUD matrix has one row for every data entity identified and one column for every Use Case specified (or the other way around) So, first create a column (or row) for every Use Case in your model Every noun highlighted in the Use Cases will suggest the need for data entity to store the respective data you, so you need to create a row (or column) for each of these data entities Then go through every cell in the first Use Case and enter a C, R, U and/or D on the cell depending on whether the Use Case is creating, reading, updating or deleting records in the respective data entity (i.e., database table). The C’s, R’s, U’s and D’s should give you an idea of the SQL queries that you will need to develop for your application

56 56 Illustration UC-101UC-102UC-103 Entity 1CR Entity 2U Entity 3D UC-102 Reads data from Table 1  It will require an SQL SELECT query UC-101 Creates a record in Table 1  It will require an SQL INSERT query UC-103 Deletes records data from Table 3  It will require an SQL DELETE query UC-102 Updates data in Table 2  It will require an SQL UPDATE query

57 57 CRUD Matrix Example for a Loan Processing Application Use Case Data Entity Submit a Loan Request Evaluate a Loan Request Book a Loan ApplicantC Loan ApplicationCR Credit ScoreCR Credit ReportCR Account HistoryCR Loan RequestCR,UR Loan OfficerR EvaluationCR Loan AgreementR Loan AccountC Loan ClerkR In a database application, these are tables and these are queries

58 58 ATM Application Example

59 59 ATM Use Case Use Case IDUC-100 Use CaseWithdraw Funds Actors(P) Customer DescriptionThe customer inserts card in the ATM, logs in with a pass code, and makes a selection from the available choices to withdraw funds. Once in the funds withdrawal screen, the customer is prompted to enter the amount to withdraw. After the amount is entered, the system will check for availability of funds for that customer. Provided that funds are available, the system will dispense the amount requested in cash and then debit that amount from the customer’s bank account. The system will record the last withdrawal date in customer’s file and record transaction in ATM transaction log. Priority Non-Functional Requirements Assumptions Source

60 60 ATM Use Case Use Case IDUC-101 Use CaseDeposit Funds Actors(P) Customer DescriptionThe customer inserts card in the ATM, logs in with a pass code, and makes a selection from the available choices to deposit funds. Once in the funds deposit screen, the customer is prompted to enter the amount to deposit. After the amount is entered, deposit slot door opens, customer places deposit envelop in slot, deposit slot door closes. The system credits the customer’s account accordingly, records the last deposit date in the customer’s file and record the transaction in ATM transaction log. Priority Non-Functional Requirements Assumptions Source

61 61 ATM Use Case Use Case IDUC-102 Use CaseTransfer Funds Actors(P) Customer DescriptionThe customer inserts card in the ATM, logs in with a pass code, and makes a selection from the available choices to transfer funds. Once in the funds transfer screen, the customer is prompted to enter the amount to transfer, from account and to account. After the information is entered, the checks for availability of funds. If funds are available, it displays the transaction and asks for confirmation. The customer confirms transaction and the customer’s account gets adjusted accordingly. The system records the last funds transfer date in the customer’s file and records the transaction in ATM transaction log. Priority Non-Functional Requirements Assumptions Source

62 62 ATM Use Case Use Case IDUC-103 Use CaseBalance Inquiry Actors(P) Customer DescriptionThe customer inserts card in the ATM, logs in with a pass code, and makes a selection from the available choice to inquire balances. The machine prints balances, records the last balance inquiry date in the customer’s file and records the transaction in ATM transaction log. Priority Non-Functional Requirements Assumptions Source

63 63 ATM System’s CRUD Matrix Use Case Data Entity Withdraw Funds Deposit Funds Transfer Funds Inquire Balances ATMR,U ATM Transaction LogCUUU Customer FileR,U Customer AccountR,UU R Customer TransactionsCUU

64 64 Database Design Issue #5: “ Normalize” Your Design

65 65 Database Design Goals Data integrity (Entity and Referential Integrity – ERD’s) Avoid anomalies in the data No data redundancy Record the data in one place only Efficient data entry Duplicate data means having to enter the same data more than once Consistency Duplicate data can lead to inconsistencies when the data changes e.g., 2 different addresses for same client Flexibility and easy evolution East to maintain, update and add new tables Normalization

66 66 Why Normalization? Question: if a data model/ERD is sound and all entity integrity, referential integrity, update/delete and business rules have been well implemented, does this guarantee a good database design? Answer: not necessarily. If your design is not “normalized”, you could have redundant data, and that would be a BAD thing (design) Normalization should yield the most efficient way to organize and record the data internally—not necessarily how users want to see the data, but what makes more sense for non-redundant data storage We can later build user table views (i.e., what the user wants or needs to see) by querying these normalized tables. Redundancy: only PK and FK (e.g., client ID’s) values should appear in multiple tables (because they are needed to link tables)  Non-key data (e.g., client last name) that appears in multiple tables is “redundant”

67 67 Example You gather requirements from users and one user gives you this table and tell you that she would like the system to collect this data. How would you organize this data internally in the database?

68 68 Normalization Normalization = The systematic process of “decomposing” a set of unorganized tables with redundant data into smaller, simpler, and more organized tables with only minimal data redundant in key fields and no data redundancy on non-key fields — i.e., from chaos to order Decomposition Query Decompose to most efficient internal organization  You can always recover the original data format with a query 

69 69 Degree of Normalization Normalization is a matter of degree -- the more normalized your design is, the lower the chances of having redundant data Normal Forms (NF) (higher NF designs are more normalized): 1NF  2NF  3NF  BCNF  PJNF  DKNF  4NF  5NF The process of normalizing a design to 3NF may seem complex, but the concept is very simple: (1) Minimize data redundancy in key attributes -- i.e., data in key fields can be entered in more than one table (2) Eliminate data redundancy in non-key attributes -- i.e., data in non-key fields should be entered only in one table (3) Ensure that every piece of data (each non-key attribute) can be unambiguously located by its PK (4) Each incremental NF gets us a step closer in this direction

70 70 To what extent is a database normalized? Normalization is a matter of degree Measured in what is called “normal forms” (NF) 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, etc., higher NF = more normalized 3NF Good enough for most applications BCNF  Boyce-Codd NF (more robust version of 3NF) Mostly of academic interest (and complex applications): 4NF, 5NF or PJNF (Project Join), DKNF (Domain-Key)  More advanced theoretically, little practical use  Useful for research and formal methods only Normal Forms

71 71 Q: What’s wrong with this table? A: Data in PayDate & Amount fields not single-valued —i.e., they have repeating values

72 72 Similar Table, Same Problem A: repeating values for a PK value  PK is duplicate

73 73 First Normal Form (1NF) A “TABLE” is in 1NF if there are no multi-valued attributes and no PK is duplicated i.e., attributes are “atomic” A “DATABASE” is in 1NF if ALL its tables are in 1NF

74 74 Decomposition to 1NF: Create a separate table where the repeating values can be recorded as rows

75 75  Decomposition

76 76 Q: What’s wrong with this table? A: Some data in the Client and OrderDate fields are entered twice i.e., some non-key data are redundant i.e., there are “partial dependencies” in the table (see next slide)

77 77 Functional Dependencies An attribute B is functionally dependent on attribute A if the value of a valid instance of attribute A uniquely determines the value of attribute B Represented as: AB

78 78 Functional Dependency Examples StudentID StudentName StudentID StudentMajor What are the functional dependencies in this relations? Clients (ClientID, ClientName, City, State, Zip) LineItems (OrderNo, LineItem, ClientID, ProdID, Qty)

79 79 Second Normal Form (2NF) Applies to tables with “composite” PKs (i.e., PK has more than one attribute) A “TABLE” is in 2NF if (1) it is in 1NF, and (2) non-key attributes are functionally dependent on the whole PK, not on just part of it (i.e., no partial dependencies) Note: we only need to worry about 2NF when PK contains more than one attribute (i.e., “composite”) That is: if a table is in 1NF and has a single PK, it is automatically in 2NF A “DATABASE” is in 2NF if ALL its tables are in 2NF

80 80 Decomposition to 2NF: Move the partial key (e.g., OrderNo) and the fields that are functionally dependent on only that part of the key (e.g., ClientID, OrderDate) to a separate table and make that partial key the PK in that new table

81 81  Decomposition

82 82 Q: What’s wrong with this table? A: Some of the data in the ClientCity field is redundant, because once we know who the ClientID is, we know the city where they live i.e., there are “transitive dependencies” in the table

83 83 Transitive Dependencies If a non-key attribute C is functionally dependent on another non-key attribute B (B  C) and B is in turn dependent on the PK attribute A (A  B) this implies C is transitively dependent on A (A  C) (through B or A  B  C), which will cause redundancies In 2NF, all non-key attributes are functionally dependent on the PK Thus, in a 2NF table, a transitive dependency will occur every time there is a functional dependency between any two non-key attributes.

84 84 Transitive Dependency Examples OrderNo ClientID ClientName CourseNo InstructorID InstructorName Are there transitive dependencies in these relations? LineItems (OrderNo, LineItem, ProdID, Qty) LineItems (OrderNo, LineItem, ProdID, ProdName, Qty)

85 85 Third Normal Form (3NF) A “TABLE” is in 3NF if (1) it is in 2NF and (2) non- key attributes depend on the PK and nothing else That is, non-key attributes are NOT functionally dependent on other non-key attributes (just on the PK) In other words, there are no transitive dependencies A “DATABASE” is in 3NF if ALL its tables are in 3NF

86 86 Decomposition to 3NF: Move the fields with transitive dependencies to a separate table

87 87  Decomposition

88 88 In Summary 1NF = no multi-value attributes (or no PK duplicates) 2NF = 1NF + the “whole” PK, not just part of it 3NF = 2NF + the PK and “nothing but” the PK Important! it is OK to have non-normalized designs, and some database applications may actually require a non-normalized design, but you must have an understanding of which normalization form you are violating and a good reason for doing it

89 89 Exercises Indicate the normal form (PK underlined) and decompose to 3NF Class (CourseNo, SectionNo, RoomNo) Class (CourseNo, SectionNo, RoomNo, Capacity) Class (CourseNo, SectionNo, CourseName, RoomNo, Capacity)

90 90 Exercises POS System: Indicate the normal form (PK underlined) and decompose to 3NF Sales (SaleNo, ClientID, ClientName, SaleDate, SaleAmount) SalesDetails (SaleNo, LineItem, SaleDate, ProdID, ProdName, Qty) Other Systems: VideoRental (VideoNo, Date, MovieID, MovieName, ClientID) VideoRental (VideoNo, Date, ClientID, RentalDays) Videos (VideoNo, MovieID, MovieName, MovieType) Videos (VideoNo, MovieID, VideoCondition) Movies (MovieID, MovieName, MovieType, Producer, ReleaseDate)

91 91 Exercise Indicate the normal form and decompose to 3NF

92 92 Decomposition  Queries Conceptually, normalization can be thought of the opposite of a SELECT SQL query. When you normalize, you decompose a large table into simpler, smaller tables without redundancies. In contrast, when you query several small tables, the result is a larger table in which redundancies don’t matter. For example, the decomposed tables of the exercise in the prior page can be reconstructed by querying the normalized tables as follows: SELECT Companies.CompanyID, CompanyName, Employees.EmployeeID, EmployeeName, Departments.DeptID, DeptName FROM Departments, Companies, Employees WHERE Companies.CompanyID = Employees.CompanyID AND Departments.DeptID = Employees.DeptID

93 93 Exercise Indicate the normal form and decompose to 3NF (and then try to write an SQL query to re-construct the original table)

94 94 Back to Basics: Enterprise Architecture Organization’s Goals Business Application Enterprise Model Enterprise Process Model Enterprise Technology Model Enterprise Application Model Enterprise Data Model Business Domain ITEC 630: Business Process Business Data Model Business Application Model Technology Infrastructure


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