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Machine-Level Programming V: Miscellaneous Topics Topics Buffer Overflow Linux Memory Layout Understanding Pointers Floating-Point Code CS 105 Tour of.

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Presentation on theme: "Machine-Level Programming V: Miscellaneous Topics Topics Buffer Overflow Linux Memory Layout Understanding Pointers Floating-Point Code CS 105 Tour of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Machine-Level Programming V: Miscellaneous Topics Topics Buffer Overflow Linux Memory Layout Understanding Pointers Floating-Point Code CS 105 Tour of Black Holes of Computing

2 – 2 – 105 Internet Worm and IM War November, 1988 Internet Worm attacks thousands of Internet hosts. How did it happen? July, 1999 Microsoft launches MSN Messenger (instant messaging system). Messenger clients can access popular AOL Instant Messaging Service (AIM) servers AIM server AIM client AIM client MSN client MSN server

3 – 3 – 105 Internet Worm and IM War (cont.) August 1999 Mysteriously, Messenger clients can no longer access AIM servers. Microsoft and AOL begin the IM war: AOL changes server to disallow Messenger clients Microsoft makes changes to clients to defeat AOL changes. At least 13 such skirmishes. How did it happen? The Internet Worm and AOL/Microsoft War were both based on stack buffer overflow exploits! Many Unix functions do not check argument sizes. Allows target buffers to overflow.

4 – 4 – 105 String Library Code Implementation of Unix function gets No way to specify limit on number of characters to read Similar problems with other Unix functions strcpy : Copies string of arbitrary length scanf, fscanf, sscanf, when given %s conversion specification /* Get string from stdin */ char *gets(char *dest) { int c = getc(); char *p = dest; while (c != EOF && c != '\n') { *p++ = c; c = getc(); } *p = '\0'; return dest; }

5 – 5 – 105 Vulnerable Buffer Code int main() { printf("Type a string: "); echo(); return 0; } /* Echo Line */ void echo() { char buf[4]; /* Way too small! */ gets(buf); puts(buf); }

6 – 6 – 105 Buffer Overflow Executions unix>./bufdemo Type a string: unix>./bufdemo Type a string:12345 Segmentation Fault unix>./bufdemo Type a string: Segmentation Fault

7 – 7 – 105 Buffer Overflow Stack echo: pushl %ebp# Save %ebp on stack movl %esp,%ebp subl $20,%esp# Allocate space on stack pushl %ebx# Save %ebx addl $-12,%esp# Allocate space on stack leal -4(%ebp),%ebx# Compute buf as %ebp-4 pushl %ebx# Push buf on stack call gets# Call gets... /* Echo Line */ void echo() { char buf[4]; /* Way too small! */ gets(buf); puts(buf); } Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf %ebp Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo

8 – 8 – 105 Buffer Overflow Stack Example Before call to gets unix> gdb bufdemo (gdb) break echo Breakpoint 1 at 0x (gdb) run Breakpoint 1, 0x in echo () (gdb) print /x *(unsigned *)$ebp $1 = 0xfffff8f8 (gdb) print /x *((unsigned *)$ebp + 1) $3 = 0x804864d :call c d:mov 0xffffffe8(%ebp),%ebx # Return Point Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf %ebp Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo 0xfffff8d8 Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo ff f d xx

9 – 9 – 105 Buffer Overflow Example #1 Before Call to gets Input = “123” No Problem 0xfffff8d8 Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo ff f d Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf %ebp Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo

10 – 10 – 105 Buffer Overflow Stack Example #2 Input = “12345” :push %ebx :call 80483e4 # gets :mov 0xffffffe8(%ebp),%ebx b:mov %ebp,%esp d:pop %ebp# %ebp gets set to invalid value e:ret echo code: 0xfffff8d8 Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo ff d Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf %ebp Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo Saved value of %ebp set to 0xffff0035 Bad news when later attempt to restore %ebp

11 – 11 – 105 Buffer Overflow Stack Example #3 Input = “ ” Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf %ebp Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo :call c d:mov 0xffffffe8(%ebp),%ebx # Return Point 0xfffff8d8 Return Address Saved %ebp [3][2][1][0] buf Stack Frame for main Stack Frame for echo Invalid address No longer pointing to desired return point %ebp and return address corrupted

12 – 12 – 105 Malicious Use of Buffer Overflow Input string contains byte representation of executable code Overwrite return address with address of buffer When bar() executes ret, will jump to exploit code void bar() { char buf[64]; gets(buf);... } void foo(){ bar();... } Stack after call to gets() B return address A foo stack frame bar stack frame B exploit code pad data written by gets()

13 – 13 – 105 Exploits Based on Buffer Overflows Buffer overflow bugs allow remote machines to execute arbitrary code on victim machines. Internet worm Early versions of the finger server (fingerd) used gets() to read the argument sent by the client: finger Worm attacked fingerd server by sending phony argument: finger “exploit-code padding new-return-address” exploit code: executed a root shell on the victim machine with a direct TCP connection to the attacker.

14 – 14 – 105 Exploits Based on Buffer Overflows Buffer overflow bugs allow remote machines to execute arbitrary code on victim machines. IM War AOL exploited existing buffer overflow bug in AIM clients Exploit code: returned 4-byte signature (the bytes at some location in the AIM client) to server. When Microsoft changed code to match signature, AOL changed signature location.

15 – 15 – 105 Avoiding Overflow Vulnerability Use library routines that limit string lengths fgets instead of gets strncpy instead of strcpy Or strlcpy if available (see man strcpy and use –lbsd) Don’t use scanf with %s conversion specification Use fgets to read the string /* Echo Line */ void echo() { char buf[4]; /* Way too small! */ fgets(buf, sizeof buf, stdin); fputs(buf, stdout); }

16 – 16 – 105 Linux Memory Layout Stack Runtime stackHeap Dynamically allocated storage When call malloc, calloc, realloc, newDLLs Dynamically Linked (Shared) Libraries Library routines (e.g., printf, malloc ) Linked into object code when first executedData Statically allocated data E.g., arrays & strings declared in codeText Executable machine instructions Read-only Upper 2 hex digits of address FF BF 7F 3F C (Stack) DLLs Text Data Heap 08 Stack

17 – 17 – 105 Linux Memory Allocation Linked FF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data 08 Some Heap FF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data Heap 08 More Heap FF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data Heap 08 Initially FF 7F 3F Stack Text Data 08

18 – 18 – 105 Text & Stack Example (gdb) break main (gdb) run Breakpoint 1, 0x804856f in main () (gdb) print $esp $3 = (void *) 0xfffffc78 Main Address 0x804856f should be read 0x fStack Address 0xfffffc78 Initially FF 7F 3F Stack Text Data 08

19 – 19 – 105 Dynamic Linking Example (gdb) print malloc $1 = { } 0x (gdb) run Program exited normally. (gdb) print malloc $2 = {void *(unsigned int)} 0x Initially Code in text segment that invokes dynamic linker Address 0x should be read 0x Final Code in DLL region Linked FF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data 08

20 – 20 – 105 Memory Allocation Example char big_array[1<<24]; /* 16 MB */ char huge_array[1<<28]; /* 256 MB */ int beyond; char *p1, *p2, *p3, *p4; int useless() { return 0; } int main() { p1 = malloc(1 << 28); /* 256 MB */ p2 = malloc(1 << 8); /* 256 B */ p3 = malloc(1 << 28); /* 256 MB */ p4 = malloc(1 << 8); /* 256 B */ /* Some print statements... */ }

21 – 21 – 105 Example Addresses $esp0xfffffc78 p3 0x500b5008 p1 0x400b4008 Final malloc0x p40x1904a640 p20x1904a538 beyond 0x1904a524 big_array 0x1804a520 huge_array 0x0804a510 main()0x f useless() 0x Initial malloc0x FF 7F 3F Stack DLLs Text Data Heap 08

22 – 22 – 105 C Operators OperatorsAssociativity () [] ->.left to right ! ~ * & (type) sizeofright to left * / %left to right + -left to right >left to right >=left to right == !=left to right &left to right ^left to right |left to right &&left to right ||left to right ?:right to left = += -= *= /= %= &= ^= != >=right to left,left to right Note: Unary +, -, and * have higher precedence than binary forms

23 – 23 – 105 C Pointer Declarations int *p p is a pointer to int int *p[13] p is an array[13] of pointer to int int *(p[13]) p is an array[13] of pointer to int int **p p is a pointer to a pointer to an int int (*p)[13] p is a pointer to an array[13] of int int *f() f is a function returning a pointer to int int (*f)() f is a pointer to a function returning int int (*(*f())[13])() f is a function returning ptr to an array[13] of pointers to functions returning int int (*(*x[3])())[5] x is an array[3] of pointers to functions returning pointers to array[5] of ints

24 – 24 – 105 Data Representations: IA32 + x86-64 Sizes of C Objects (in Bytes) C Data Type Typical 32-bit Intel IA32x86-64 unsigned int444 int444 long int448 char111 short222 long long888 float444 double888 long double810/1216 char *448 Or any other pointer

25 – 25 – 105 %rax %rbx %rcx %rdx %rsi %rdi %rsp %rbp x86-64 Integer Registers Extend existing registers. Add 8 new ones. Make %ebp / %rbp general purpose %eax %ebx %ecx %edx %esi %edi %esp %ebp %r8 %r9 %r10 %r11 %r12 %r13 %r14 %r15 %r8d %r9d %r10d %r11d %r12d %r13d %r14d %r15d %ax %bx %cx %dx %si %di %sp %bp %r8w %r9w %r10w %r11w %r12w %r13w %r14w %r15w %dx %si %di %sp %bp %r8w %r9w %r10w %r11w %r12w ahal bhbl chcl dhdl sil dil spl bpl r8b r9b r10b r11b r12b r13b r14b r15b

26 – 26 – 105 %rax %rbx %rcx %rdx %rsi %rdi %rsp %rbp x86-64 Integer Registers Extend existing registers. Add 8 new ones. Make %ebp / %rbp general purpose %eax %ebx %ecx %edx %esi %edi %esp %ebp %r8 %r9 %r10 %r11 %r12 %r13 %r14 %r15 %r8d %r9d %r10d %r11d %r12d %r13d %r14d %r15d

27 – 27 – 105 Instructions Long word l (4 Bytes) ↔ Quad word q (8 Bytes) New instructions: movl → movq addl → addq sall → salq movzbq, movslq etc. 32-bit instructions that generate 32-bit results: Set higher order bits of destination register to 0 Example: addl, movl ( thus no movzlq)

28 – 28 – 105 Swap in 32-bit Mode void swap(int *xp, int *yp) { int t0 = *xp; int t1 = *yp; *xp = t1; *yp = t0; } swap: pushl %ebp movl %esp,%ebp pushl %ebx movl 12(%ebp),%ecx movl 8(%ebp),%edx movl (%ecx),%eax movl (%edx),%ebx movl %eax,(%edx) movl %ebx,(%ecx) movl -4(%ebp),%ebx movl %ebp,%esp popl %ebp ret Body Setup Finish

29 – 29 – 105 Swap in 64-bit Mode Operands passed in registers (why useful?) First ( xp ) in %rdi, second ( yp ) in %rsi 64-bit pointers No stack operations required 32-bit data Data held in registers %eax and %edx movl operation void swap(int *xp, int *yp) { int t0 = *xp; int t1 = *yp; *xp = t1; *yp = t0; } swap: movl(%rdi), %edx movl(%rsi), %eax movl%eax, (%rdi) movl%edx, (%rsi) retq

30 – 30 – 105 Swap Long Ints in 64-bit Mode 64-bit data Data held in registers %rax and %rdx movq operation Otherwise same void swap_l (long int *xp, long int *yp) { long int t0 = *xp; long int t1 = *yp; *xp = t1; *yp = t0; } swap_l: movq(%rdi), %rdx movq(%rsi), %rax movq%rax, (%rdi) movq%rdx, (%rsi) retq

31 – 31 – 105 New Calling Conventions Most procedures no longer need stack frame First six arguments passed in registers Register %rbp available for general use Stack frame accessed via %rsp 128 bytes below %rsp usable by function (“red zone”)

32 – 32 – 105 IA32 Floating Point History 8086: first computer to implement IEEE FP separate 8087 FPU (floating point unit) 486: merged FPU and Integer Unit onto one chipSummary Hardware to add, multiply, and divide Floating point data registers Various control & status registers Floating Point Formats Single precision (C float ): 32 bits Double precision (C double ): 64 bits Extended precision (C long double ): 80 bits Instruction decoder and sequencer FPU Integer Unit Memory

33 – 33 – 105 FPU Data Register Stack FPU register format (extended precision) sexpfrac FPU registers 8 registers Logically forms shallow stack Top called %st(0) When push too many, bottom values disappear stack grows down “Top” %st(0) %st(1) %st(2) %st(3)

34 – 34 – 105 FPU instructions Large number of floating point instructions and formats ~50 basic instruction types load, store, add, multiply sin, cos, tan, arctan, and log! Sample instructions: InstructionEffectDescription fldz push 0.0Load zero flds Addr push M[ Addr ] Load s.p. real fmuls Addr%st(0) <- %st(0)* M[ Addr ]Multiply faddp%st(1) <- %st(0)+%st(1); pop Add and pop

35 – 35 – 105 Final Observations Buffer Overflow Big C design mistake; most common security problem Memory Layout OS/machine dependent (including kernel version) Stack/data/text/heap/DLL found in most machines Type Declarations in C Notation obscure, but systematicIA64 New registers, completely different calling conventions IA32 Floating Point Strange “shallow stack” architecture


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