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Memory Allocation. Memory A memory or store is required in a computer to store programs (or information or data). Data used by the variables in a program.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory Allocation. Memory A memory or store is required in a computer to store programs (or information or data). Data used by the variables in a program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory Allocation

2 Memory A memory or store is required in a computer to store programs (or information or data). Data used by the variables in a program is also loaded into memory for fast access. A memory is made up of a large number of cells, where each cell is capable of storing one bit. The cells may be organized as a set of addressable words, each word storing a sequence of bits. These addressable memory cells should be managed effectively to increase its utilization. That is memory management is to handle request for storage (that is new memory allocations for a variable or data) and release of storage (or freeing the memory) in most effective manner.

3 MEMORY ALLOCATION IN C There are two types of memory allocations in C: 1. Static memory allocation or Compile time 2. Dynamic memory allocation or Run time In static or compile time memory allocations, the required memory is allocated to the variables at the beginning of the program. Here the memory to be allocated is fixed and is determined by the compiler at the compile time itself. For example int i, j; //Two bytes per (total 2) integer variables float a[5], f; //Four bytes per (total 6) floating point variables

4 Static memory allocation drawbacks Static memory allocation has following drawbacks. leads to the inefficient use of memory. Insertion cannot exceed the size of array

5 Dynamic or Run Time Memory Allocation The dynamic or run time memory allocation helps us to overcome this problem. It makes efficient use of memory by allocating the required amount of memory whenever is needed. In most of the real time problems, we cannot predict the memory requirements. Dynamic memory allocation does the job at run time. C provides the following dynamic allocation and de- allocation functions : (i) malloc( ) (ii) calloc( ) (iii) realloc( ) (iv) free( )

6 malloc( ) The malloc( ) function is used to allocate a block of memory in bytes. The malloc() function returns a pointer of any specified data type after allocating a block of memory of specified size. It is of the form ptr = (int_type *) malloc (block_size) ‘ptr’ is a pointer of any type ‘int_type’ byte size is the allocated area of memory block. For example ptr = (int *) malloc (10 * sizeof (int));

7 Remember the malloc() function allocates a block of contiguous bytes. The allocation can fail if the space in the heap is not sufficient to satisfy the request. If it fails, it returns a NULL pointer. So it is always better to check whether the memory allocation is successful or not before we use the newly allocated memory pointer.

8 //THIS IS A PROGRAM TO FIND THE SUM OF n ELEMENTS USING //DYNAMIC MEMORY ALLOCATION #include //Defining the NULL pointer as zero #define NULL 0 void main() { int i,n,sum; //Allocate memory space for two-integer pointer variable int *ptr,*ele; clrscr(); //Clear the screen printf(“\nEnter the number of the element(s) to be added = ”); scanf(“%d”,&n); //Enter the number of elements //Allocating memory space for n integers of int type to *ptr ptr=(int *)malloc(n*sizeof(int)); //Checking whether the memory is allocated successfully if(ptr == NULL) { printf(“\n\nMemory allocation is failed”); exit(0); } //Reading the elements to the pointer variable *ele for(ele=ptr,i=1;ele<(ptr+n);ele++,i++) { printf(“Enter the %d element = ”,i); scanf(“%d”,ele); } //Finding the sum of n elements for(ele=ptr,sum=0;ele<(ptr+n);ele++) sum=sum+(*ele); printf(“\n\nThe SUM of no(s) is = %d”,sum); getch(); }

9 calloc( ) The calloc( ) function works exactly similar to malloc( ) function except for the fact that it needs two arguments as against one argument required by malloc( ) function. While malloc( ) function allocates a single block of memory space, calloc( ) function allocates multiple blocks of memory, each of the same size, and then sets all bytes to zero. The general form of calloc( ) function is: ptr = (int_type*) calloc(n sizeof (block_size)); ptr = (int_type*) malloc(n* (sizeof (block_size)); For example ptr = (int *) calloc(25, 4); ptr = (int *) calloc(25,sizeof (float)); The memory allocated using malloc() function contains garbage values, the memory allocated by calloc() function contains the value zero.

10 free() Dynamic memory allocation allocates block(s) of memory when it is required and deallocates or releases when it is not in use. It is important and is our responsibility to release the memory block for future use when it is not in use, using free() function. The free() function is used to deallocate the previously allocated memory using malloc() or calloc() function. The syntax of this function is free(ptr); ‘ptr’ is a pointer to a memory block which has already been allocated by malloc() or calloc() functions. Trying to release an invalid pointer may create problems and cause system crash.

11 realloc() In some situations, the previously allocated memory is insufficient to run the correct application, i.e., we want to increase the memory space. It is also possible that the memory allocated is much larger than necessary, i.e., we want to reduce the memory space. In both the cases we want to change the size of the allocated memory block and this can be done by realloc() function. This process is called reallocation of the memory. The syntax of this function is ptr = realloc(ptr, New_Size) Where :‘ptr’ is a pointer holding the starting address of the allocated memory block. : And New_Size is the size in bytes that the system is going to reallocate.

12 realloc() Following example ptr = (int *) malloc(sizeof (int)); ptr = (int *) realloc(ptr, sizeof (int)); ptr = (int *) realloc(ptr, 2); (Both the statements are same) ptr = (int *) realloc(ptr, sizeof (float)); ptr = (int *) realloc(ptr, 4); (Both the statements are same)

13 Thank You

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