2esta camisa ese vendedor aquellos zapatos In Spanish, as in English, demonstrative adjectives are words that “demonstrate” or “point out” nouns.Demonstrative adjectives precede the nouns they modify and, like other Spanish adjectives you have studied, agree with them in gender and number. Observe these, then study the chart on the next slide:esta camisa ese vendedor aquellos zapatosthis shirt that salesman those shoes (over there)
3Demonstrative adjectives SINGULARPLURALMasculineFeminineesteestaestosestasthis; theseeseesaesosesasthat; thoseaquelaquellaaquellosaquellasthat; those (over there)*Note: The masculine singular forms DO NO end in –o.
4There are three sets of demonstrative adjectives. To determine which one to use, you must establish the relationship between the speaker and the noun(s) being pointed out.este, esta, estos, estas (this/these)used to point out nouns that are close to the speaker and the listener. (aquí)ese, esa, esos, esas (that/those)used to point out nouns that are not close in space and/or time to the speaker. They may, however, be close to the listener. (allí)aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas (that/those)used to point out nouns that are far away from the speaker and the listener. (allá…en la distancia)
5When referring to time: este, esta, estos, estas (this/these)relate to the presentEsta semana tengo que ir de compras.ese, esa, esos, esas (that/those)relate to a period that is relatively nearEse día fuimos a Boston.aquel, aquella, aquellos, aquellas (that/those)En aquel siglo, las mujeres llevaban falda larga.In that century, women wore long skirts.
6Note how este (esta) always comes first in Spanish. When referring to two people or things mentioned in a previous sentence, English uses the words “former” and “latter.”In Spanish, the demonstratives este (esta) and aquel (aquella) are used for the same purpose.Aquel= former because it means “that one” – the first one mentioned and the more distant grammatically speakingEste= latter because it means “this one”-the one mentioned last in the sentence and, consequently, the closer in the order of the presentation.Note how este (esta) always comes first in Spanish.Luisa and Raymond got married yesterday.The former (Luisa) is Spanish and the latter (Raymond) is Portuguese.Luisa y Ramón se casaron ayer.Este (Ramón) es portugués y aquella (Lisa) es española.
7Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns are identical to their corresponding demonstrative adjectives, with the exception that they carry an accent mark on the stressed vowel. *THIS IS NO LONGER REQUIRED BY THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SPAIN. However, many native speakers continue to use them in their writing for purposes of clarity.—¿Quieres comprar este suéter?Do you want to buy this sweater?—No, no quiero este (éste). Quiero ese (ése).No, I don’t want this one. I want that one.
8Demonstrative pronouns SINGULARPLURALMasculineFeminineésteéstaéstoséstaséseésaésosésasaquélaquéllaaquéllosaquéllasNote: These are no longer necessary though will continue to be seen in writing.
9an object that has not been identified There are three neuter demonstrative pronouns: esto, eso, & aquello. These forms refer to:ideas / factsconceptssituationsan object that has not been identifiedThey do not change in gender or number and never carry an accent mark.¿Qué es esto? What’s this?Eso es interesante. That’s interesting.Aquello es bonito. That’s prettyEso no es verdad That (what you said) isn’t true.*Note: the neuter pronouns always end in –o.
10Quiero este reloj y el de oro. I want this watch and the gold one. In Spanish, the definite article (el, la, los, las) is used instead of the demonstrative pronoun before:a phrase that begins with dea relative clause introduced by queQuiero este reloj y el de oro.I want this watch and the gold one.La que habló primero fue la mejor.The woman (the one) who spoke first was the best.
11¡ATENCIÓN! Este libro es de Pablito. Estos son de Juana. Like demonstrative adjectives, demonstrative pronouns agree in gender and number with the corresponding noun.Este libro es de Pablito.Estos son de Juana.
12¡INTÉNTALO! Provide the correct form of the demonstrative adjective for these nouns. 1. la falda / este ______ 6. las empleadas / ese ______2. los estudiantes / este ______ 7. el chico / aquel ______3. los países / aquel ______ 8. las sandalias / este ______4. la ventana / ese ______ 9. el autobús / ese ______5. los periodistas / ese ______ las chicas / aquel ______