Presentation on theme: "Warm up 1.Name three roles of the president 2.Name three powers of Congress 3.What is the process of amending the Constitution? 4.Which of the amendments."— Presentation transcript:
Warm up 1.Name three roles of the president 2.Name three powers of Congress 3.What is the process of amending the Constitution? 4.Which of the amendments in the Bill of Rights do you consider to be the most important? Why?
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819) Supremacy, Necessary and Proper Clauses Maryland tried to tax the Federal Bank Fed bank is allowed under the N+P Clause
Civics Amendments and Court Cases
I. Civil Liberties (1 st ) A.Religion: establishment vs. free practice clauses- separation of church and state
Engle vs. Vitale 1 st amendment/ 14 th amendment (1962) Parents against kids saying prayer in the morning at school School prayer found unconstitutional
Wallace vs. Jaffree First Amendment December 4 th 1984 ended June 5 th 1985 In 1981 Alabama passes a law that allowed a moment of silence for “meditation” or “prayer” in public schools. This gave students the opportunity for voluntary prayer at the appropriate time and established no more structured prayer in public schools.
B.Assembly: implies freedom of association- organize groups C.Petition: express ideas to the government- lobbying
D.Press: across different media
Amendment I Congress passed the Espionage Act restricting the first amendment for WWI. Schenck told soldiers to oppose and resist the draft, the was then arrested. The Court declared the Espionage Act a reasonable and acceptable limitation on speech in time of war. Schenck vs. U.S. (1919)
New York Times vs US (1979) 1 st Amendment New york times got ahold of internal defense department report and published it Focused on freedom of press and right to inform Americans 6-3 decision, Court ruled favor of the New York Times
E.Speech: can be any kind of communication
Tinker vs. Des Moines School District (1968) 1 st Amendment School against wearing armbands protesting against the Vietnam War The wearing of the armbands was protected by the 1 st Amendment
Hazelwood school District vs. Kuhlmeier (January 1988) Violated the 1 st Amendment Hazelwood East High School to censored stories concerning teen pregnancy and the effects of divorce on children from a school-sponsored student newspaper. The Court ruled that School officials need not tolerate speech which is inconsistent with the school's basic educational mission
West Virginia Board of Education vs. Barnette (1942) Amendment I The West Virginia Board of Education required that students and faculty salute the flag. The Courts voted 6 to 3 in favor of Barnette saying that compelling students to salute the flag is unconstitutional.
Texas vs. Johnson 1.He was in the 1 st amendment, speech 2.He was originally ruled guilty for burning the flag 3.Johnson's burning of a flag was protected expression under the First Amendment.
Amendment 1: Speech, Press, and Assembly Frederick suspended for sign reading “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” at school event. 5-4 vote, rules that school officials can prohibit students from displaying messages that promote illegal drug use
F.Limitations 1.Slander- spoken lies to damage reputation 2.Libel- written lies to damage reputation 3.Obscenity- restrictions on printing and distribution 4.Broadcast media- Federal Communication Commission
Warm up Imagine that Lucas pulled out a knife in the middle of class and stabs Stanley. Before we can put him in prison for what he has done, what legal steps must take place?
II. Rights of the Accused (4-6,8) A.Search warrant from a judge
Mapp vs. Ohio (1961) 4 th Amendment Police used evidence found without a warrant against Dollree Mapp. Got off clean, ruled that evidence without a warrant is unconstitutional by 4 th and 14 th Amendments.
What Went Down… 4 th amendment Two girls got caught blazin in the bathroom at school. One girl confessed and the other girl denied it. Students can be searched without a warrant if there is reasonable suspicion New Jersey vs. T.L.O (1986)
Fourth AmendmentFourth Amendment For New Jersey: School officials have the powers to control student conduct, including search and seizure.For New Jersey: School officials have the powers to control student conduct, including search and seizure. T.L.O ( Tracey Lois Odem):T.L.O ( Tracey Lois Odem): Because school officials are employees of the State, they are obligated to respect student’s rights, including their privacy. Because school officials are employees of the State, they are obligated to respect student’s rights, including their privacy.
B.Indictment- formal charge for serious crime C.Double jeopardy- can’t be tried for the same crime twice D.Right to remain silent E.Due process- reasonable laws and legal procedures
6 th Amendment Gideon too poor to get lawyer. Court denied request for lawyer and Gideon defended himself. He later wrote to Supreme court and granted him a hearing with lawyers. All citizens must be provided a lawyer if they can’t afford one, regardless of the crime. Gideon vs Wainwright (1963)
Fifth Amendment Miranda did a crime, the police questioned him about it he told confessed but the police did not tell him he had any rights “Miranda Warning”- that you have the right to remain silent; that anything you say may be used against you in the court of law. Miranda vs. Arizona
Ticket Out: Name three cases that involve student’s rights. What are the two steps in the process of amending the Constitution? Describe one case which protects the rights of the accused.
F.Eminent domain- gov’t must pay fair price if take your land G.Bail- money used as a security deposit for court date
FURMAN Vs. GEORGIA Amendment VIII & XIV Amendment VIII & XIV Furman was burglarizing a private home one of the family members came outside, Furman started to run and fell the gun is his pocket went off and killed the man Furman was burglarizing a private home one of the family members came outside, Furman started to run and fell the gun is his pocket went off and killed the man Justices said if the public thought the death penalty was unfair or did not like it they could get rid of it completely or re write it. Justices said if the public thought the death penalty was unfair or did not like it they could get rid of it completely or re write it.
Gregg vs. Georgia 8 th amendment: cruel and unusual punishment Gregg had a armed robbery and murder. He was sentenced to death. He pleaded that this was a “cruel and unusual” punishment. He was still sentenced to death and the court said this was not unconstitutional.
III. Extending the Constitution (9,10) A.There are more rights than are in the Constitution B.All powers not specifically in Constitution given to states (reserved powers)
R OE V. W ADE (1973) Fourteenth Amendment Roe challenged the constitutionality of the Texas criminal abortion laws Laws were ruled as infringing on the right to privacy; many laws in various states were affected by this ruling
DRED SCOTT VS. SANDFORD 5th amendment Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri (slave state) who was moved to Illinois (free state). Scott and his owner were forced back to Missouri. He sued his owner for freedom when he died. Slaves are not citizens and cannot be freed
IV. Civil War Amendments (13- 15) A.13th: ended slavery B.14th: most important amendment 1.Defined citizenship 2.All citizens must have equal protection under the law 3.Incorporates the Bill of Rights to the states C.15 th : African Americans get right to vote
Plessy vs. Ferguson The 13th and 14th Amendment was what the case pertains to.June 7, 1896 Plessy (7/9 white) sits in an all white cart gets arrested after refusing to move to the colored carts Plessy didn’t win, the Supreme Court established the rule of “separate but equal”
Brown vs. Board of Education 14 th Amendment: Insured African Americans of their legal citizenship and equal rights. Oliver Brown vs. Board: Ended legal segregation in public schools. Segregation of students in public schools disregards the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separating students is inherently unequal.
Swann Versus CMS 14 th Amendment. Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District was forcing students to use the bus to promote racial integration Busing students to promote integration is constitutional.
Korematsu vs. us 14 th Amendment Presidential order #9066 to have all Americans with Japanese decent put in internment camps during WW 2 Court sided against Korematsu, citizen’s rights can be restricted in war The government later apologized for the internment of Japanese Americans and gave all families monetary compensation
California Board of Regents v Bakke Court Case: California Board of Regents vs. Bakke ( ) the Fourteenth Amendment The University of California rejected a white mans (Allan Bakke) application twice for med school. The use of racial quotas at the school violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment but affirmative action is allowed
V. Progressive Era (16-19) A.Income tax (16) B.Senators elected (17) C.No alcohol (18) D.Women’s suffrage (19)
VI. Later Amendments A.23: Washington DC can vote in national elections B.24: No more poll tax- pay money before voting (prevented African-Americans and poor whites from voting,) C.26:Voting age to 18