Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT EGYPT Take notes as you WILL have an exam on this information in about 2 weeks!!!"— Presentation transcript:
1ANCIENT EGYPTTake notes as you WILL have an exam on this information in about 2 weeks!!!
2~ Geography ~Ancient Egypt was a narrow strip of land along the Nile River, otherwise it was desertEach year the river flooded its banks, leaving behind a fertile fringe of soil they called "the Black Land," while the desert all around the Nile valley was called "the Red Land."Over 90% of Egypt is barren desert, leaving 99% of the population to live in just 3% of the land, including the fertile Nile Valley and Delta.Egypt's climate is hot and dry for most of the year.
3 Geography : The Nile River: The Nile River is about 4,145 miles long. It is the longest river in the world. The Nile gave them rich soil to grow there crops so they have food. Egypt's two most important places are the Nile delta and the Nile valley, all ancient Egyptians depended on the Nile river for food, water and transportation.
4Agriculture Herodotus called Egypt the “Gift of the Nile” Egyptians took advantage of the Nile’s annual floods to become an especially productive agricultural region
5Specialization Plowing and Sowing Brewing and Breadmaking Harvesting papyrus and HerdingSailing
6SpecializationNile societies were much slower than Mesopotamia to adopt metal tools and weaponsDid develop pottery, textile manufacture, woodworking, leather production, stonecutting, and masonry occupationsEgyptian pottery makers
7Specialization Building a pyramid would require Laborers Architects EngineersCraftsmenArtists
9Cities Relatively few cities and high administrative centralization MemphisFounded by Menes around 3100 BC as capital of a united Upper and Lower EgyptLocated at the head of the Nile River DeltaThebesAdministrative center of Upper EgyptSeat of worship for Amon
10~ Religion and Philosophy ~ In ancient Egypt visual arts, writing, and literature all celebrated religion—the elaborate tombs, pyramids, and temples are legacies of their religious beliefs and practices. Later, Muslim artists brought the distinctive mosque architecture to Egypt. The majority of Egyptian people today are fellahin, or farmers, who’s lifestyles and traditions have hardly changed over the past centuries. Mummification in ancient Egypt was a very long and expensive process. From start to finish, it took about seventy days to embalm a body. Since the Egyptians believed that mummification was essential for passage to the afterlife, people were mummified and buried as well as they could possibly afford. High-ranking officials, priests and other nobles who had served the pharaoh and his queen had fairly elaborate burials.
11Economics:The people of Egypt used silver and gold for money, to earn money they would sell slaves, horses and food in the market. Farmers had to give the pharaoh a large part of their crop, as their tax pay, every Egyptian had to pay a large tax almost every year to help the government.
12Economic ExchangeIn this scene from the grave of Ipui at Thebes, sailors are seen leaving the boat carrying sacks containing grain. A woman is selling bread and possibly beer (top left), beside her a sailor is exchanging grain for fish. On the right a buyer checks out a cake or a loaf of bread while beside him another is acquiring some vegetables.
13Economic ExchangeThe Nile provided excellent transportation which facilitated trade.Nile flows north so boats could ride the currents from Upper to Lower Egypt.
14Economic ExchangeEgypt needed to trade because, beside the Nile, it had few natural resourcesFor example, Egypt had very few trees so all its wood came from abroad, especially cedar from LebanonMuch trade between Egypt and NubiaImportance of trade was reflected in the names of southern Egyptian cities
15New TechnologiesRamps and stone-cutting required to build pyramids
16New Technologies Papyrus Shipbuilding The raw material came from the plant Cyperus papyrus which grew along the banks of the NileUsed not only in the production of paper but also used in the manufacture of boats, rope and basketsShipbuildingWooden boatsMultiple-oarsSailsRope trusses to strengthen hulls
18Religion and Education Two main gods were Amon (Thebian deity associated with the sun, creation, fertility, and reproductive forces) and Re (the sun god worshipped at Heliopolis)
19Brief Period of Monotheism For a brief period Akhentan challenged the Amon-Re cult by proclaiming Aten as the one and only true godThe sun disc Aten shining on the names of the royal family
20MummificationIn order to prepare a person for the long and hazardous journey before they could enjoy the pleasures of the afterlife, the body of a dead person was preserved by a process called mummification
21The JudgmentThe Egyptians viewed the heart as the seat of intellect and emotion.Before entering the pleasures of eternity, the dead person had to pass a test in which Anubis, the god of the dead, weighed the person’s heart against Ma’at, the goddess of justice and truth
22The JudgmentIf the deceased’s good deeds outweighed the bad, then his heart would be as light as the feather (heavy hearts bore the burden of guilt and evil), and Osiris would welcome the newcomer to the next world.If the deceased fell short in his judgment, his body would be eaten by a monster
23Osiris Patron of the underworld, the dead, and past pharaohs Cult of Osiris demanded observance of high moral standardsAs lord of the underworld, Osiris had the power to determine who deserved the blessing of immortality and who did not
25Social Hierarchy Pharaoh Egyptian kings of a centralized state Claimed to be gods living on earth in human formBureaucratsBecause the pharaoh was an absolute ruler there was little room for a noble class as in MesopotamiaInstead professional military forces and an elaborate bureaucracy of administrators and tax collectors served the central government
26Social Hierarchy Patriarchial Vested authority over public and private affairs in menHowever, more opportunities for women than in Mesopotamia as evidenced by Queen Hatshepsut reigning as pharaohPeasants and slavesSupplied the hard labor that made complex agricultural society possibleAmong the slaves were the Hebrews
27~ Language, Education, and the Arts ~ The ancient Egyptian civilization was a system of apprenticeship. This allowed craftsmen to teach their trade to young people who were not their children. The family of the apprentice paid the craftsman for training. In earlier times, education was more individualized. Each scribe taught his successor individually, usually his own son. Later there were formal classes for scribes. The Books of Instruction also served as teaching texts in the scribe schools.
29Art and Writing The Sphinx and Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza. PyramidsSymbols of the pharaoh’s authority and divine stature; royal tombsPyramid of Khufu involved the precise cutting and fitting of 2,300,000 limestone blocks with an average weight of 2.5 tonsEstimated construction of the Khufu pyramid required 84,000 laborers working 80 days per year for 20 yearsThe Sphinx and Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza.
30Art and Writing Hieroglyphs Pictures that were used to write the ancient Egyptian languageOriginally used to keep records of the king's possessions. Scribes could easily make these records by drawing a picture of a cow or a boat followed by a number.As the language became more complex, more pictures were needed.
31Tutankhamun (King Tut) PharaohsTutankhamun (King Tut)1334 and 1325 BCRamesses IIBC
32~ Pharaohs ~The Egyptian kings ruled over Egypt for 3000 years until the armies of Alexander the Great arrived in 332 B.C.During this 3000 year period the Egyptians would overcome a lot such as the Hyksos and the Persians, but then Alexander came.
33Mesopotamia and Egypt Mesopotamia Egypt Agriculture +“Land between the rivers” (Tigris and Euphrates forms Fertile Crescent+Artificial irrigation+”Gift of the Nile”Specialization+Pottery, textiles, woodworking, leather, brick making, stonecutting, masonry+Pottery, textiles, woodworking, leather production, stonecutting, masonryCities-Numerous, densely populated city-states (Ur and Babylon)-Fewer cities with high centralization (Memphis and Thebes)Social Hierarchy-Noble class-Patriarchal+Slaves-Absolute authority of the pharaoh made a noble class unnecessary (had bureaucrats instead)-Patriarchal, but the presence of Queen Hatsheput may indicate greater opportunities for women
34Mesopotamia and Egypt Mesopotamia Egypt Religion and Education -Polytheism-No afterlife-Polytheism, but brief period of monotheism under Akhentan-Afterlife and judgment (mummification)New Technologies-Superior in metallurgy-Papyrus, shipbuilding, pyramidsEconomic exchange-Trade by land and water-Trade principally by water along the Nile-Trade more important because Egypt lacked natural resources beside the NileArt and Writing-Cuneiform-Hieroglyphs (more pictorial than cuneiform)