Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT EGYPT Take notes as you WILL have an exam on this information in about 2 weeks!!!"— Presentation transcript:
ANCIENT EGYPT Take notes as you WILL have an exam on this information in about 2 weeks!!!
~ Geography ~ Ancient Egypt was a narrow strip of land along the Nile River, otherwise it was desert Each year the river flooded its banks, leaving behind a fertile fringe of soil they called "the Black Land," while the desert all around the Nile valley was called "the Red Land." Over 90% of Egypt is barren desert, leaving 99% of the population to live in just 3% of the land, including the fertile Nile Valley and Delta. Egypt's climate is hot and dry for most of the year.
The Nile River: The Nile River is about 4,145 miles long. It is the longest river in the world. The Nile gave them rich soil to grow there crops so they have food. Egypt's two most important places are the Nile delta and the Nile valley, all ancient Egyptians depended on the Nile river for food, water and transportation.
Agriculture Herodotus called Egypt the “Gift of the Nile” Egyptians took advantage of the Nile’s annual floods to become an especially productive agricultural region
Specialization Brewing and Breadmaking Plowing and Sowing Sailing Harvesting papyrus and Herding
Specialization Nile societies were much slower than Mesopotamia to adopt metal tools and weapons Did develop pottery, textile manufacture, woodworking, leather production, stonecutting, and masonry occupations Egyptian pottery makers
Specialization Building a pyramid would require Laborers Architects Engineers Craftsmen Artists
Relatively few cities and high administrative centralization Memphis Founded by Menes around 3100 BC as capital of a united Upper and Lower Egypt Located at the head of the Nile River Delta Thebes Administrative center of Upper Egypt Seat of worship for Amon
~ Religion and Philosophy ~ In ancient Egypt visual arts, writing, and literature all celebrated religion—the elaborate tombs, pyramids, and temples are legacies of their religious beliefs and practices. Later, Muslim artists brought the distinctive mosque architecture to Egypt. The majority of Egyptian people today are fellahin, or farmers, who’s lifestyles and traditions have hardly changed over the past centuries. Mummification in ancient Egypt was a very long and expensive process. From start to finish, it took about seventy days to embalm a body. Since the Egyptians believed that mummification was essential for passage to the afterlife, people were mummified and buried as well as they could possibly afford. High-ranking officials, priests and other nobles who had served the pharaoh and his queen had fairly elaborate burials.
The people of Egypt used silver and gold for money, to earn money they would sell slaves, horses and food in the market. Farmers had to give the pharaoh a large part of their crop, as their tax pay, every Egyptian had to pay a large tax almost every year to help the government.
Economic Exchange In this scene from the grave of Ipui at Thebes, sailors are seen leaving the boat carrying sacks containing grain. A woman is selling bread and possibly beer (top left), beside her a sailor is exchanging grain for fish. On the right a buyer checks out a cake or a loaf of bread while beside him another is acquiring some vegetables.
Economic Exchange The Nile provided excellent transportation which facilitated trade. Nile flows north so boats could ride the currents from Upper to Lower Egypt.
Economic Exchange Egypt needed to trade because, beside the Nile, it had few natural resources For example, Egypt had very few trees so all its wood came from abroad, especially cedar from Lebanon Much trade between Egypt and Nubia Importance of trade was reflected in the names of southern Egyptian cities
New Technologies Ramps and stone-cutting required to build pyramids
New Technologies Papyrus The raw material came from the plant Cyperus papyrus which grew along the banks of the Nile Used not only in the production of paper but also used in the manufacture of boats, rope and baskets Shipbuilding Wooden boats Multiple-oars Sails Rope trusses to strengthen hulls
Religion and Education
Two main gods were Amon (Thebian deity associated with the sun, creation, fertility, and reproductive forces) and Re (the sun god worshipped at Heliopolis)
Brief Period of Monotheism For a brief period Akhentan challenged the Amon-Re cult by proclaiming Aten as the one and only true god The sun disc Aten shining on the names of the royal family
Mummification In order to prepare a person for the long and hazardous journey before they could enjoy the pleasures of the afterlife, the body of a dead person was preserved by a process called mummification
The Judgment The Egyptians viewed the heart as the seat of intellect and emotion. Before entering the pleasures of eternity, the dead person had to pass a test in which Anubis, the god of the dead, weighed the person’s heart against Ma’at, the goddess of justice and truth
The Judgment If the deceased’s good deeds outweighed the bad, then his heart would be as light as the feather (heavy hearts bore the burden of guilt and evil), and Osiris would welcome the newcomer to the next world. If the deceased fell short in his judgment, his body would be eaten by a monster
Osiris Patron of the underworld, the dead, and past pharaohs Cult of Osiris demanded observance of high moral standards As lord of the underworld, Osiris had the power to determine who deserved the blessing of immortality and who did not
Pharaoh Egyptian kings of a centralized state Claimed to be gods living on earth in human form Bureaucrats Because the pharaoh was an absolute ruler there was little room for a noble class as in Mesopotamia Instead professional military forces and an elaborate bureaucracy of administrators and tax collectors served the central government
Social Hierarchy Patriarchial Vested authority over public and private affairs in men However, more opportunities for women than in Mesopotamia as evidenced by Queen Hatshepsut reigning as pharaoh Peasants and slaves Supplied the hard labor that made complex agricultural society possible Among the slaves were the Hebrews
~ Language, Education, and the Arts ~ The ancient Egyptian civilization was a system of apprenticeship. This allowed craftsmen to teach their trade to young people who were not their children. The family of the apprentice paid the craftsman for training. In earlier times, education was more individualized. Each scribe taught his successor individually, usually his own son. Later there were formal classes for scribes. The Books of Instruction also served as teaching texts in the scribe schools.
Art and Writing
Pyramids Symbols of the pharaoh’s authority and divine stature; royal tombs Pyramid of Khufu involved the precise cutting and fitting of 2,300,000 limestone blocks with an average weight of 2.5 tons Estimated construction of the Khufu pyramid required 84,000 laborers working 80 days per year for 20 years The Sphinx and Great Pyramid of Khufu at Giza.
Art and Writing Hieroglyphs Pictures that were used to write the ancient Egyptian language Originally used to keep records of the king's possessions. Scribes could easily make these records by drawing a picture of a cow or a boat followed by a number. As the language became more complex, more pictures were needed.
Pharaohs Tutankhamun (King Tut) 1334 and 1325 BC Ramesses II BC
~ Pharaohs ~ The Egyptian kings ruled over Egypt for 3000 years until the armies of Alexander the Great arrived in 332 B.C. During this 3000 year period the Egyptians would overcome a lot such as the Hyksos and the Persians, but then Alexander came.
Mesopotamia and Egypt MesopotamiaEgypt Agriculture +“Land between the rivers” (Tigris and Euphrates forms Fertile Crescent +Artificial irrigation +”Gift of the Nile” +Artificial irrigation Specialization +Pottery, textiles, woodworking, leather, brick making, stonecutting, masonry +Pottery, textiles, woodworking, leather production, stonecutting, masonry Cities -Numerous, densely populated city-states (Ur and Babylon) -Fewer cities with high centralization (Memphis and Thebes) Social Hierarchy -Noble class -Patriarchal+Slaves -Absolute authority of the pharaoh made a noble class unnecessary (had bureaucrats instead) -Patriarchal, but the presence of Queen Hatsheput may indicate greater opportunities for women +Slaves
Mesopotamia and Egypt MesopotamiaEgypt Religion and Education -Polytheism -No afterlife -Polytheism, but brief period of monotheism under Akhentan -Afterlife and judgment (mummification) New Technologies -Superior in metallurgy -Papyrus, shipbuilding, pyramids Economic exchange -Trade by land and water -Trade principally by water along the Nile -Trade more important because Egypt lacked natural resources beside the Nile Art and Writing -Cuneiform -Hieroglyphs (more pictorial than cuneiform)