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Long-term causes of the French Revolution. Can be divided into those relevant to:  Social Structure  Political/Administrative System  Financial, Fiscal.

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Presentation on theme: "Long-term causes of the French Revolution. Can be divided into those relevant to:  Social Structure  Political/Administrative System  Financial, Fiscal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Long-term causes of the French Revolution

2 Can be divided into those relevant to:  Social Structure  Political/Administrative System  Financial, Fiscal and Economic Problems  New Ideas (the Enlightenment)

3 Social Structure

4 The king  Atop of the pyramid sits the king  1774 – Revolution: Louis XVI  Divine Right Absolute Monarch (more on that later

5

6 The First Estate – the Clergy  Less than 1% of population – 150, ,000  Archbishops and bishops (extreme minority – around 1000; noble; wealthy); Monks, Nuns, Lower Clergy (vast majority – parish priests, assistants)  Disparity in wealth and salary  Exempt from tax – pay don gratuit, voluntary contribution  Plurality and absenteeism – makes unpopular  Can tax people – tithe % of income; little goes to charity or poor priests, corruption – income 50 million livres  10% of land – income from land huge – 100 million livres  Powers of censorship; administration; ministry of information for government

7 The Second Estate – the Nobility  less than 1% of population - between 110,000 and 350,000; own around 30% of the land  Most powerful estate  Control public office  Privileges – special courts, exempt from military service, some tax exemption (gabelle; taille)  Feudal dues  Variations in wealth and status  Dominate administration and army  Nobility of the sword; Nobility of the Robe

8 The Third Estate - Commoners  Majority of population  Bourgeoisie (lawyers/industrialists/business people/professionals) (2mil)  Rising in wealth and numbers (threefold increase over 18th Century)  Resentment at tax burden/lack of influence  Town workers, sans culottes (2 mil)  Worsening economic situation  Peasants (85% population)  Land owning farmers and tenant farmers (5 mil)  Sharecropping farmers (11 mil)  Day rural labourers (5 mil)  Serfs (1 mil)  Grievances – tax; feudal dues; lack of legal rights

9 A contemporary critique…

10 In pairs, analyse that cartoon…  What do you think is going on here?  Who do you think are the figures?  Any notable symbols/imagery that helps with the picture?  Who do you think drew it?  Revolutionary image? Why?  How would it be different if someone from the first or second estates drew it?


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