Presentation on theme: "Long-term causes of the French Revolution. Can be divided into those relevant to: Social Structure Political/Administrative System Financial, Fiscal."— Presentation transcript:
The First Estate – the Clergy Less than 1% of population – 150,000 - 220,000 Archbishops and bishops (extreme minority – around 1000; noble; wealthy); Monks, Nuns, Lower Clergy (vast majority – parish priests, assistants) Disparity in wealth and salary Exempt from tax – pay don gratuit, voluntary contribution Plurality and absenteeism – makes unpopular Can tax people – tithe - 8-10% of income; little goes to charity or poor priests, corruption – income 50 million livres 10% of land – income from land huge – 100 million livres Powers of censorship; administration; ministry of information for government
The Second Estate – the Nobility less than 1% of population - between 110,000 and 350,000; own around 30% of the land Most powerful estate Control public office Privileges – special courts, exempt from military service, some tax exemption (gabelle; taille) Feudal dues Variations in wealth and status Dominate administration and army Nobility of the sword; Nobility of the Robe
The Third Estate - Commoners Majority of population Bourgeoisie (lawyers/industrialists/business people/professionals) (2mil) Rising in wealth and numbers (threefold increase over 18th Century) Resentment at tax burden/lack of influence Town workers, sans culottes (2 mil) Worsening economic situation Peasants (85% population) Land owning farmers and tenant farmers (5 mil) Sharecropping farmers (11 mil) Day rural labourers (5 mil) Serfs (1 mil) Grievances – tax; feudal dues; lack of legal rights
In pairs, analyse that cartoon… What do you think is going on here? Who do you think are the figures? Any notable symbols/imagery that helps with the picture? Who do you think drew it? Revolutionary image? Why? How would it be different if someone from the first or second estates drew it?