How did reformers of the past make changes that impact our lives today?
I. The Roots of Progressivism The Rise of Progressivism Who were the progressives Had many different views to correct problems in society Believed that industrialization and urbanization caused problems Agreed government should take a bigger role in trying to solve the problems
Beginnings of Progressivism Reaction to laissez-faire economics Progressives did not feel the free-market could address the problems of the working class Government had to be fixed first Strong faith in science and technology Pragmatism Social Gospel
Who were the progressives and what did they want to do?
The Muckrakers Journalists that investigated social conditions Got the name muckrakers from President T. Roosevelt: “Now it is very necessary that we should not flinch from seeing what is vile and debasing. There is filth on the floor and it must be scraped up with the muck-rack; and there are times and places where this service is the most needed of all the services that can be performed….” ~Washington, D.C., April 14, 1906
Ida Tarbell exposed the Standard Oil Company in a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine Charles Edward Russell attacked the beef industry in Everybody’s Magazine Jacob Riis wrote about living conditions and poverty in How the Other Half Lives Upton Sinclair's The Jungle the Jungle Excerpt the Jungle Excerpt http://www.explorepahistory.com/story.php?storyId=12&chapter=4&page=2 http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=Charles+Edward+Russell
When are “muckrakers” beneficial to society? Identify what you would consider present day “muckrakers” and discuss the topics they explore.
Why is it important to have an efficient government? Identify recent events to support your answer.
Making Government Efficient Some progressives felt government should be run like a business – scientific management Frederick Taylor: The Principles of Scientific Management Commission Plan: the government would be divided into departments run by experts American Government
Democracy and Progressivism “Laboratory of Democracy” Robert La Follette, Governor of Wisconsin Pushed for direct primary Three New Reforms Initiative- petition Referendum- question by leg. Recall- removal vote Direct election of Senators 17 th Amendment-1913 http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=clip+art+%2B+elections
The progressives wanted to make the government more efficient – what would make the government more efficient today?
The Suffrage Movement Suffrage – is the right to vote Early Problems Weak – concentration on equal rights for blacks and whites Two separate organizations National Woman Suffrage Association – Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony – wanted constitutional amendment American Woman Suffrage Association – Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe – wanted to change state law
3. The Movement Builds Support 1890 – unite – National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) No significant gains until 1910 States start changing laws – 1912 Alice Paul – Quaker, Washington march Carrie Chapman Catt – “Winning Plan” – supported Wilson for president 4. 19 th Amendment 1920 – women gain the right to vote Mary poppins
Social Welfare Progressivism The Campaign Against Child Labor 1.7 million children under 16 worked outside the home National Child Labor Committee – abolish child labor John Spargo – muckraker – told about coal mines http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/childlabor/hughestown2.jpg
Poor working conditions Triangle Shirtwaist Company – 150 died in fire 3/25/1911 Building codes for fire hazards Fire doors, escape ladders, fire ladders Compensation laws http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/images1/mar25_triangle_fire.jpg 2. Health and Safety Codes
Prohibition Alcohol was responsible for many problems Effects of drinking on the family Many Christians opposed it Temperance Movement – elimination of alcohol Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Theodore Roosevelt Square Deal “ Every individual is entitled to no more or no less”
The Trustbuster Northern Securities- 1904 Supreme Court ruled that the company was a monopoly and had to be broken up. Expedition Act- gave anti-trust suits precedent in federal courts Department of Commerce and Labor- investigate interstate commerce
Coal Strike of 1902 Eastern Pennsylvania- 150,000 miners Terrible Conditions: low wages, layoffs, cheap living situations John Mitchell- rep. of UMWA –asked for 3 rd party arbitration TR called both parties together in Oct. using the power of presidency and influence resolved issue b/c it is the best for nation
TR the Conservationists Newlands Act 1902- irrigation to dry states Tripled land set aside for national parks Gathered States for a National Conservation Commission
William Howard Taft Wanted to lower tariffs, lower cost of living. Payne-Aldrich Tariff- ended up with high taxes on some items, but presidential power to investigate rates Taft signed because party was starting to split “Old Guard” vs. “Insurgents” Taft did what he could to keep the party together
Ballinger- Pinchot Affair Secretary of Interior- Ballinger opened conservation land for private purchase. Pinchot chief forester accused Ballinger of Fraud. Taft sided with Ballinger and had Pinchot fired for insubordination. Ballinger was found innocent but Taft was seen as anti-conservation
Siding with “Uncle Joe” Joe Cannon-speaker of the House used his power to control the Congress and run it the way he wanted. Cannon was conservative and didn’t put through many progressive bills and conservation laws. “Insurgents” wanted to take Cannon out, they were able to take away much of his power but Taft stuck by him, weakening his support
Taft did some good! Busted more trusts that TR Created a Federal budget and investigated tariffs 16 th Amendment- collect income taxes 17 th Amendment- Direct election of Senators
Progressive Party- New Nationalism TR was disgusted with Taft’s display in office He decided to throw his hat in with a new platform TR called for a more active role by states to change laws and help people. Inheritance tax- pay for being left money Bull Moose Party- “ I am as strong as a bull moose” New Nationalism As we read the speech we will underline the places where Roosevelt talks about the benefits or good aspects of business, and circle the places where Roosevelt talks about the problems with trusts in America.
Wilson Wins! 1912 New Freedom Due to the split in the Rep. Party and a socialists surge. The Dems. Walked away with a small victory First act as pres. Reduce tariffs for a stronger US Underwood Tariff- equal tax on foreign and domestic goods. Gov. main source of money income tax
1908 bank crisis led to change Aldrich Commission had to find a way to fix banking in America 1.Not enough money in banks in time of crisis 2.There was no flexibility in backing, can not just put more money in circulation 3.No central control of banks 4.Too much money center in NYC
Federal Reserve Act 12 Federal Reserve Banks “Bank for Bankers” Funds to move money Privately owned but elected by member banks Federal Reserve Board- appointed by the President in DC
Federal Reserve Notes could be used for cash The Fed could then print money based on the notes issued, once paid off money is retired Raising rates discredits spending where as lowering encourages
Federal Trade Commission Investigate and regulate business practices price cut Clayton Anti-Trust Act- could not price cut to run out other businesses. Tying Tying of contracts, business could trade freely. Incorporate investment Incorporate investment- part owner in rival business Interlocking directorates- Interlocking directorates- could not be a director on business and bank Helped protect unions no more injunctions on peaceful demonstrations.
Legislation at Home Federal Farm Loan Banks- loans to farmers using gov. money Federal Highways Act- road construction to help farmers get goods to market. Keating-Owen Child labor- under 14 no job for interstate commerce goods Adamson Act- 8 hour work day for railroads
Bad side of Wilson Segregated D.C.- brought Jim Crow to the capitol At first opposed women’s rights
In the end what changes were made? Ok now that the chapter is over let’s look back. How did the Presidents help in: Working Conditions Safety and health Women Business Tariffs Was this truly a Progressive Era?
Reforms of the Era You will divide up into 9 groups Each group will research a reform of the time and create a poster answering the following questions 1. What was the problem that needed reform? 2. What specific people and actions brought about this reform? 3. How did this reform movement changed America? This is your REVIEW FOR THE TEST!