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Outline  Saturday last…Saturday next  Last…I’ll give ¼ point to anyone who actually did something (Heather’s poster, Adam’s money, other)  Next… EXTRA.

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Presentation on theme: "Outline  Saturday last…Saturday next  Last…I’ll give ¼ point to anyone who actually did something (Heather’s poster, Adam’s money, other)  Next… EXTRA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Outline  Saturday last…Saturday next  Last…I’ll give ¼ point to anyone who actually did something (Heather’s poster, Adam’s money, other)  Next… EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY: EVENT RUNS FROM 1 TO 3:00…I’LL GIVE 1 ASSIGNMENT POINT AN HOUR + ½ FOR THE EXTRA DUTY OF RIDING WITH CAMPUS SECURITY OR HELPING AT CEM  Markets and Politics  Electoral Systems  Single Member winner take all vs. proportional representation  Poor People’s Movement

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3  6. Handler concludes that the “problem of welfare dependency is not the recipients. Rather, the problems are the job market and the conditions of work.” Please explain what this means, being sure to incorporate a quote or evidence from the text.

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5 Another Important Public Policy  Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)  a tax credit for people who work, but do not earn high incomes.  If they qualify and claim the credit, they could pay less federal tax, pay no tax or even receive a refund beyond the amount of tax withheld.

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7 Effect of EITC  In 2003, 22.1 million households received $39.2 billion in EITCs — or an average of $1,782 per household (or $2,100 for a family with children).[8]  Census data show that without the EITC, everything else being equal, an additional 4.4 million people would have been in poverty, including 2.4 million children.  According to the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, “Census data show that the EITC lifts more children out of poverty than any other single program or category of programs.”[9]  MANY OF YOU QUALIFY…MAKE SURE YOU TAKE IT…

8 Bipartisan Support for the Earned Income Tax  President Ronald Reagan once called the EITC “the best anti-poverty, the best pro-family, the best job creation measure to come out Congress.” tax.htm tax.htm  In NJ…there in the process of significantly reducing the credit…  Which brings us to our next topic…poor people’s movement’s and politics…

9 Power, Struggle and Social Change… “Those who profess to favor freedom and yet depreciate agitation, are people who want crops without ploughing the ground; they want rain without thunder and lightning; they want the ocean without the roar of its many waters. The struggle may be a moral one, or it may be a physical one, or it may be both. But it must be a struggle. Power concedes nothing without a demand; it never has and it never will.”  Frederick Douglass

10 Poor People’s Movements  Many interesting puzzles…  Given the size of this population…37 million in 2007  Near poor estimated to be 57 million  Given the persistence of poverty…  Given the grievances of poor people…  And the fact that there are way more of them then there are rich people…why don’t things change?

11 Capitalism and Democracy  “…markets exist in an uneasy tension with welfare states” (Iceland 2003:194)  Market institutions and Political Institutions exist side by side in American society  They offer different strategies for the “mobilization of resources, the distribution of rewards, and the steering of society” (Korpi 1989: 312)  Pre-school can be something which is bought in the market…if you have the money you pay someone for this service…  Pre-school can be something that is provided by political institutions…governments collect taxes and provide this service to all citizens…

12 Capitalism, Democracy and Power  They offer different strategies for the “mobilization of resources, the distribution of rewards, and the steering of society” (Korpi 1989: 312)  Deciding on which strategy should be adopted is a question of power…  What are some of the sources of power in our society? From what does the power of different social actors derive?  Think about people in America with children that attend underfunded schools? Or people who want pre-school for all citizens… What sources of power do parents have to enact a tax on millionaires…an issue in NJ today? What sources of power do millionaires have to oppose the tax?  Think about Walmart and the people who work at Walmart for low wages? When it comes to pay… What are Wal-Mart's sources of power? What are the low wage workers sources of power?

13 Politics and Markets  Market  “capital and economic resources form the basis of power, and such resources tend to be more or less unequally distributed among social classes and interest groups” (Korpi 1989: 312)  Democratic Politics  “…the principal power resources are the right to vote and to right to organize collective action.”  These rights are tied to citizenship and are equally distributed

14 Politics Against Markets  “Numerically large collectivities, which are relatively weak in terms of their market resources, can therefore be expected to attempt to use their more favorable positions in terms of political resources to affect the conditions for and outcomes of distributive market conflicts” (Korpi 1989: 312)  Can anyone interpret…

15 Politics Against Markets  “Numerically large collectivities, which are relatively weak in terms of their market resources, can therefore be expected to attempt to use their more favorable positions in terms of political resources to affect the conditions for and outcomes of distributive market conflicts” (Korpi 1989: 312)  Groups of citizens (i.e. workers, senior citizens, poor people) organize to alter the distribution of society’s resources  “Social policy can be used by those who are relatively weak in terms of market resources to extend social rights and thereby enrich the status of citizenship” (Korpi 1989: 313)  People use “Democracy” to provide an alternative logic of distribution to “Markets”  Do we get child care by buying it…or as a right of citizenship?  Do only those with good jobs get to eat, or do we have food stamps?

16 US Poverty in Perspective, …this didn’t just happen.

17 Politics Against Markets: Working Poor Organize to turn “bad jobs” into “good jobs”  This wage would not have lifted a family of four above the poverty level  Poverty Threshold for family of 4 in 2004 was $19,484  Annual salary based on $7.62 would be $15,850 for a 52 week work year  This wage lifts a family of four into the middle class  $66,789 a year

18 Comparative Impact of Welfare State, p.261 Kerbo Poverty Pre Welfare Poverty Post Welfare Percent Reductio n US26.7%19.1%-28.5% Germany Italy England Canada Denmark Belgium Sweden

19 Social Welfare Spending, (as pct. of gross national product)

20  Why such a difference between Sweden and the US?  In his article the Low Wage Puzzle, Jencks asks “ why do ordinary American workers get to keep less of what they produce than ordinary workers in other rich countries?” In your own words, explain how he answers this question.

21 Jencks: "It's politics, stupid."  The answer turns out be pretty simple: "It's politics, stupid." Political scientists have been churning out papers on this question for more than a decade, and while the details differ, they mostly tell a broadly similar story. At least in rich democracies, differences in income distribution seem to be traceable to differences in constitutional arrangements, electoral systems and economic institutions. Those differences in turn affect the political balance between left and right, the level of spending on the welfare state and a wide range of economic policies.  Economic inequality is less pronounced in countries where the constitutional system has few veto points, allowing the government of the day to make fundamental changes. Rules that favor a multiparty system rather than a two- party one also produce more equal economic outcomes. So does proportional representation. Such arrangements apparently make it more likely that a ruling coalition will seek to protect labor unions, raise the minimum wage and centralize wage negotiations, all of which tend to reduce wage inequality. Such coalitions also tend to expand the welfare state.

22 Explaining the Class Skew  What type of political parties exist in all other advanced capitalist nations, except the US?  Labor Parties or Social Democratic Parties Parties  Canada (New Democratic Party), England (Labor Party), Sweden and Germany (Social Democratic Party)  These parties explicitly craft programs for, and then appeal to, poor and working class citizens…  When elected (see next chart) these parties implement policies that benefit the poor and working class

23 Politics and the Poor Vote for Labor or Social Democratic Party Austria France Germany Norway Britain Sweden

24 The parties create the Social Market Economies that we’ve considered  A Large Number of Universal Programs  all citizens qualify for benefits as right of citizenship  Benefits tend to be more generous than those in a liberal welfare state

25 Raises Interesting Questions…Why Did Such a Party Never Become Important in US  America is relatively unique in that it has Single Member Winner Take All Districts (SMWTA)  If the vote in Congressional District #1 was:  40% Republican Party  38% Democratic Party  22% Poor People’s Party Who goes to Congress? Republican

26 American Exceptionalism & The Political System  What happens if the vote in every Congressional District in America looks like this?  40% Republican Party  38% Democratic Party  22% Poor People’s Party

27 “American Exceptionalism”  Republicans receive 100% of the seats in Congress, despite the fact that they only received 40% of the vote  Preferences of 60% of the electorate would not be represented in the government  Strange System…few other countries have these rules Post Communist regimes (Russia, Poland, Hungary etc) opt for different model…Iraq and Afghanistan create different systems…more on this in a moment…  SMWTA system results in 2 party system. Why?

28 Politics and Poverty  “Monopoly of the Opposition.”  Backer of third party faces tough choice Back the party closest to her ideas Symbolic/Wasted Vote based on principle.. “The Democrats are sell outs, I’m voting Poor People’s Party to make a point.” Stay home… “What’s the point…nobody cares about my interests”  In most cases, this logic Has Led Social Actors interested in issues of poverty to Ally With Party that is most sympathetic to class issues…Democrats  But Democrats are a big tent party representing many interests…poor are not foremost among them  2010 Sector Totals: Democratic Party 2010 Sector Totals: Democratic Party  2010 Top Industries 2010 Top Industries ”Liberal Labor Coalition” part of party…But so is Big Business

29 American Exceptionalism & The Political System  Similar Logic at Work in Presidential Elections  Majority of votes get the Electoral votes  Winner must piece together an electoral college puzzle consisting of different states  Almost all states require a plurality…  Even if a 3 rd party can win some electoral votes, without a national presence it is hopeless  1856, Know Nothings, 21.5% of vote, 8 EV  1912, Progressive Party (Ted Roosevelt), 27.4%, 88 EV  1968, American Independent, 13.5%, 46 EV  1992, Ross Perot, 19%, 0 EV

30 Other ways of structuring elections?  Again…a Strange System…few other countries have these rules  Britain and Canada have variations  New Democracies, from Poland to Iraq have not adopted this system…  Most Democracies have proportional representation systems that generate more parties…  Can anyone think this through and explain why proportional representation would make “class issues” and poverty issues more important political topics.

31 Politics and Poverty  In a Proportional Representation system, might have 10 reps from 1 district:  40% Republican Party  38% Democratic Party  22% Poor People’s Party  What would the make up of Congress be?  Proportionate to vote…  40% Republican…4 Republicans  38% Democrat…4 Democrats  22% Poor People’s Party…2 PP Party  More opinions represented in government…and in order to rule, the Democrats must bring the PP into the government ( = 60

32 Multi Party Democracies & Class  With different rules, parties emerge that represent working class and poor  These parties become players in crafting policies  “Rules that favor a multiparty system rather than a two party one also produce more equal economic outcomes. So does proportional representation. Such arrangements apparently make it more likely that a ruling coalition will seek to protect labor unions, raise the minimum wage and centralize wage negotiations. Such coalitions also tend to expand the welfare state.” Jencks, p.36

33 Social Welfare Spending, (as pct. of gross national product)

34 Poor People’s Movements: Why they succeed and how they fail  Given the structure of politics in US, Piven and Cloward thought that experience demonstrated that the poor “could achieve little through the routines of conventional electoral politics and interest group politics” (p.707)  Electoral system mitigated against minor or third parties  Poor were a disorganized voting bloc with low levels of participation  Unable to compete with interests with more money US Chamber of Commerce can spend millions on campaign contributions and lobbying against a minimum wage hike Poor People simply can not compete  If traditional political channels are not effective, what does that leave?

35 Poor People’s Movements: Why they succeed and how they fail  “What remained as their main resource was…disruption, the breakdowns that resulted when people defied the rules and institutional routines that ordinarily governed life”(p.707)  “A placid poor get nothing, but a turbulent poor sometimes get something” – Piven & Cloward

36 Poor People’s Movements: Why they succeed and how they fail  Please explain what this means being sure to explain how “disruption” can lead to social change. Be sure to cite the text in your answer. How did disruption lead to power…?  Poor people do not play important roles in major institutions Unlike workers who can strike and stop production at an auto factory

37 Poor People’s Movements: Why they succeed and how they fail  “Power of the poor was not in their ability to disrupt particular institutions, but in the response of electoral leaders to such disruptions” (p.707).  Politicians unsure of their support face disruption and grant concession and reforms  Mayor X faces hundreds of people doing sit-ins at the Welfare Office demanding that aid be increased so they can support their families Creates media spectacle; potential loss of votes…a need to react…Mayor orders more aid  Poor people riot in city X…Government responds with new programs

38  3. The readings about Alinsky depict a variety of different tactics. Pick the tactic that you think was the most interesting and explain how it was designed to “disrupt” everyday life.

39  Here's where we came in. Some of our people went out to the airport and made a comprehensive intelligence study of how many sit-down pay toilets and stand-up urinals there were in the whole O'Hare complex and how many men and women we'd need for the country's first "shit-in." It turned out we'd require about 2500 people, which was no problem for TWO. For the sit-down toilets, our people would just put in their dimes and prepare to wait it out; we arranged for them to bring box lunches and reading material along to help pass the time. What were desperate passengers going to do -- knock the cubicle door down and demand evidence of legitimate occupancy? This meant that the ladies' lavatories could be completely occupied; in the men's, we'd take care of the pay toilets and then have floating groups moving from one urinal to another, positioning themselves four or five deep and standing there for five minutes before being relieved by a co-conspirator, at which time they would pass on to another rest room. Once again, what's some poor sap at the end of the line going to say: "Hey, pal, you're taking too long to piss"? Now, imagine for a second the catastrophic consequences of this tactic. Constipated and bladder-bloated passengers would mill about the corridors in anguish and desperation, longing for a place to relieve themselves. O'Hare would become a shambles! You can imagine the national and international ridicule and laughter the story would create. It would probably make the front page of the London Times. And who would be more mortified than Mayor Daley?

40  Another idea I had that almost came to fruition was directed at the Rochester Philharmonic, which was the establishment's -- and Kodak's -- cultural jewel. I suggested we pick a night when the music would be relatively quiet and buy 100 seats. The 100 blacks scheduled to attend the concert would then be treated to a preshow banquet in the community consisting of nothing but huge portions of baked beans. Can you imagine the inevitable consequences within the symphony hall? The concert would be over before the first movement -- another Freudian slip -- and Rochester would be immortalized as the site of the world's first fart-in.

41 Poverty and Society  Dr. King and the Poor People’s Movement  “The Promised Land”  Saturday  EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY: EVENT RUNS FROM 1 TO 3:00…I’LL GIVE 1 ASSIGNMENT POINT AN HOUR + ½ for extra duty  Extra duty…too many of you wanted to ride with campus safety…I put your names in a hat and picket two (Snow & Jamie: from me to security; I’ll numbers)  If Onyi, Bahae and Joe want to join Heather and help out at CEM, I’ll give extra ½ for that  Others...sign up if you’ll be there…WHERE SHOULD WE MEET?

42 Poor People’s Movements: Why they succeed and how they fail  “What remained as their main resource was…disruption, the breakdowns that resulted when people defied the rules and institutional routines that ordinarily governed life”(p.707)  “A placid poor get nothing, but a turbulent poor sometimes get something” – Piven & Cloward

43 Poor People’s Movements: Why they succeed and how they fail  “What remained as their main resource was…disruption, the breakdowns that resulted when people defied the rules and institutional routines that ordinarily governed life”(p.707)  A limited power that would not happen very often…but when “large scale socio-economic change interrupted those routines” (p.707)

44 Poor People’s Movements  What exactly did Dr. King plan to do when he announced the Poor People’s campaign? In what ways did Dr. King’s plan rely on the power of disruption discussed in number 1?

45 Eyes on the Prize, Volume 5  “The Promised Land”

46 Eyes on the Prize: The Promised Land  1. Briefly summarize why Dr. King thought opposition to the war in Vietnam was linked to his goal of improving the lives of African Americans and poor people.  2. In what ways did this position seem to impact his civil rights campaign?  3. How many cities experienced riots in 1967? According to King, what did the riots represent? How did the riots influence Dr. King’s decision to create a poor people’s movement?  4. The decision to organize a poor people’s march on Washington was a controversial one. What were some of the reasons given in support of the position that that the march was a good idea? What were some of the reasons given by those who thought it was a bad idea?  5. What brought Dr. King to Memphis Tennessee?  6. What type of “disruptive” tactics were planned or used by the poor people’s campaign?  7. Did it seem like the poor people’s march on Washington was a successful tactic? Why or why not?


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