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Chapter Seven Cognitive Views of Learning. cognition: to become acquainted with, to know, the act or process of knowing including both awareness and judgment.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Seven Cognitive Views of Learning. cognition: to become acquainted with, to know, the act or process of knowing including both awareness and judgment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Seven Cognitive Views of Learning

2 cognition: to become acquainted with, to know, the act or process of knowing including both awareness and judgment growing realization among educational psychologists that learning is an active mental process instead of simply responding to reinforcement and punish- ment cognitive theorists believe that learning is the result of our trying to make sense of the world for this, we use all mental tools we have

3 the way we think about situations, along with our knowledge, expectations, feelings, and interactions with others and the environment, influence how and what we learn Cognitive vs. Behavioral View cognitive view, knowledge is learned and changes in knowledge make changes in behavior possible behavioral view, the new behaviors themselves are learned cognitions see reinforcement as source of feedback about what might happen if behaviors are repeated---a source of information behaviorists think reinforcement strengthens responses cognitive view sees people as active learners, who initiate

4 experiences, seek out information to solve problems, and re-organ- ize what is already known to achieve new insights behaviorists believe people are passively influences by events much study of behaviorist theory has been with animals in controlled lab settings with goal to establish a few general laws of learning that can apply to all higher organisms, including humans, regardless of age, intelligence, or other individual differences cognitions study a wide range of learning situations ---they have not sought general laws of learning---one reason that there is no single cognitive model or theory of learning representi- tive of the entire field

5 Knowledge knowledge guides new learning, according to cognitions cognitive approach suggests existing knowledge affects what we will pay attention to, perceive, learn, remember, and forget,... what we already know provides a scaffold that supports all future learning My question: if one doesn’t know much, does that mean his learning capacity is diminished? cognitions: “knowledge emphasizes understanding of concepts and theories in different subject matter domains... general knowledge: i.e. how to read or write, or use a word processor, is general knowledge because it applies to

6 many different situations specific knowledge (domain specific knowledge): applies to a particular task or subject, i.e. knowing that the shortstop plays in between second and third base is knowledge specific to the sport of baseball the text does point out that there is no specific line between general and specific knowledge declarative knowledge: knowledge that can be declared, usually in words, through lectures, books, verbal exchange... “knowing that” something is the case, i.e. range of declarative knowledge is tremendous, i.e. facts, generalities, preferences, rules... procedural knowledge: knowing how to do something

7 conditional knowledge: knowing “when and why” to apply your declarative and procedural knowledge regarding math problems, it takes conditional knowledge to know when to apply one procedure and when to apply another to solve the problem Gagne’ feels this type of knowledge is a stumbling block for many students; the they have the facts and know the procedures but don’t know when to apply what they know Memory: Processing Information most common theory of memory is the information processing one, including the neutral-network or connectionist approach (Martindale)

8 compares memory to a computer—human mind takes in information, performs operations on it to change form or content, stores the information, retrieves it when needed, three parts-- Sensory Memory, Working Memory, Long-term Memory Sensory Memory : receives stimuli from environment—sights, smells, sounds--encodes it and stores it briefly, one to three seconds...perception and attention are critical at this stage perception: the meaning we attach to raw information attention: we pay attention to certain stimuli and ignore others, we select what we will process THE FIRST STEP IN LEARNING IS PAYING ATTENTION

9 students cannot process something that they don’t recognize or perceive---they must stay focused on the important features of the learning situation Teachers should: figure out ways to gain and retain their attention---underline, lighting level, bright banners, develop a signal to tell students when to change activities, avoid distractions (pencil tap), give short clear directions before, not during, transitions make sure purpose of assignment of lesson is clear to students write goals or objectives on board explain reasons for learning, ask students how to apply tie new material to previous lessons

10 emphasize variety, curiosity, suprise “What would happen if...?” change room set-up use movement, gestures, voice inflection, move around the classroom, point Working Memory : the “workbench” of the memory system, takes input from sensory memory, processes it with knowledge from long term memory, like workspace or screen of your computer, some psychologists call this “consciousness” working memory capacity is limited to five to nine new items at once also called “short term memory” with duration of seconds

11 must keep activating information in working memory or it will be lost maintenance rehearsal: keep repeating the information in your mind—keep it “in play”, ---repeat a phone number elaborative rehearsal: connect information you are trying to remember with something you already know---a type of “association”, you meet someone at a party whose name is the same as your brother’s name forgetting: information is lost from working memory by interference or decay---replaced with “new” information, not used for the “duration” period Long-Term Memory this holds all the information previously processed and stored for long term use capacity is unlimited, duration is permanent

12 information stored as visual and/or verbal units, some feel information coded visually and verbally easier to learn Semantic memory: memory stored as meaning, in form of propositions, images, schemas (structures for organizing information; concepts) schemas (schemata): abstract knowledge “structure” that organizes vast amounts of info, a pattern, a framework that encompasses all available knowledge about a topic and puts it into play in the understanding of an event, a concept, or a skill example of the term “antique” in the book, page 259 Episodic memory: memory tied to specific place or time, an “episode”

13 Procedural memory: memory of “how to do things” like ski, serve a tennis ball, work quadratic equations Storing and Retrieving Info in Long-Term Memory How we first learn information affects how easily we can recall it Elaboration: adding and extending meaning by connecting new information to existing knowledge, build in “handles” or retrieval clues, “associate” it with existing info Organization: place concept in a structure, well-organized info easier to find than bits and pieces Context: easier to remember info in the same “context” as it originally occurred, same room, same location, etc. another example of “association”?? Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory We search both consciously and automatically

14 We retrieve information by “association” and “reconstruction” Reconstructed memory plays big part in eye-witness testimony Forgetting and Long-Term Memory Some studies show that students retain much of the knowledge taught in the classroom Teaching strategies that encourage student engagement lead to longer retention of info in long-term memory Teachers should: Get students’ attention---previously discussed in slide 9 Separate essential from non-essential details---make a good point pause, repeat, ask student to repeat it, write it on board in colored chalk, ask students to highlight it make it “stand out” in their minds

15 Help students “connect” new information to known information ask questions to bring known information into play use outline or diagram (verbal or visual) to “find a place” for the new information structure lesson to specifically use new info with old provide for repetition or review---begin class with quick review, give frequent short tests to measure progress, students work in groups to interact and quiz each other Connectionism: An Alternative View of Memory Views of knowledge being stored in patterns of connections among basic processing units (neurons) in the brain this model not developed enough to be useful to teachers

16 Metacognition, Regulation, and Individual Differences Metacognitive Skills: control processes, such as attention, maintenance rehearsal, elaboration, organization, that can be intentionally used to regulate cognition---knowledge about our own thinking process “people’s awareness of their own cognitive machinery and how that machinery works”--- Meichenbaum metacognitive knowledge is used to regulate thinking and learning in three ways: planning: decide how much time to give a task, how to start, what resources to use in what order monitoring: how am I doing?, am I going to fast?, is this making sense? evaluation: should I change strategies, get help?, give up for now?, am I finished? (YES, THANK HEAVENS!)

17 These planning, monitoring, and evaluation processes are not always conscious but are often automatic, especially in adults Metacognitive abilities develop around age 5-7 and improve throughout school---Flavell, 1985 Superior metacognitive skills can compensate for lower levels of ability Individual differences in metacognitive skills attributed to biological, cultural, and experience differences Individual Differences and Working Memory Young children have limited working memories, may be because of capacity or strategy---they need to keep room for basic daily things Younger children can be taught to “rehearse” (repeat) to improve working memory

18 children are years old before developing adult-like working memories older elementary-school students and adolescents create images or stories to remember ideas Individual Differences and Long-Term Memory The major individual difference that affects long-term memory is knowledge students with more domain-specific and procedural knowledge are better at learning and remembering material in that domain with more domain knowledge, you are not trying to understand and remember at the same time the more you know about a subject, the easier it is to know more

19 to develop expert understanding and recall in a domain requires “continuous interplay of skill (i.e. knowledge) and thrill (i.e. interest)”---Alexander, 1994 How Can Teachers Support the Development of Knowledge declarative knowledge: “knowing that” something is the case--- can be facts, generalities, rules, preferences trying to build up general, overall knowledge from which to draw associations for “new” knowledge Rote memorization: a method of “learning” additional info so as to increase the overall knowledge base Mnemonics: systematic procedures for improving memory, many using imagery ( a form of association?)

20 loci method: loci means “place”, imagine a place like your house and put information you want to remember in a “place” in your house, then visualize walking through your house and seeing the information in its place acronym: an abbreviation, a good way to remember information for a long time SEE from MSF classes chain mnemonics: “associating” one element is a series with the next element---”i” before “e” except after “c” key word method: associate new word or concept with known cue word Teachers should (to help develop knowledge and skills): present lessons in vocabulary that makes sense to students clarify new terms with ties to familiar words and ideas

21 use old information to help students understand new information use examples and analogies develop “super learner” home work with material to be learned in different ways, i.e. memorization include family members, make a “parent coaching card” showing different strategies to assist with encourage families to create “study spaces” (quiet) ensure parents know purpose of homework lessons

22 Constructivism and Situated Learning General consensus regards the human mind as a symbol-pro- cessing system that converts sensory input into symbols (pro- positions, images, schemas) then processes these symbols so knowledge can be held in memory and retrieved. Learning leads to modifications of the internal symbol structures. Once the symbols get into working memory, the important work occurs “inside the head” of the individual. Constructivism and Situated Learning challenge the above some major proponents of constructivism were Piaget, Vygotsky, and John Dewey there is no ONE, agreed-upon, constructivist theory of learning

23 Constructivist Perspective emphasizes the active role of the learner in building understanding and making sense of information Types of Constructivism exogenous constructivism views learning as building accurate, mental structures (propositional networks and schemas) that reflect “the way things really are” in the world, direct teaching, feedback, and explanation affect learning role of teacher in this venue is to guide students toward more accurate and complete knowledge, to teach and model effective strategies, and to correct misconceptions endogenous constructivism says new knowledge is constructed by transforming and reorganizing previous knowledge,

24 knowledge is not a mirror of the external world, even though experience influences thinking and thinking influences knowledge. Exploration and discovery are more important than teaching--- Piaget role of the teacher in this venue is to challenge, to guide toward more complete understanding, to act as facillator, listen for students’ current conceptions, ideas, thinking dialectical constructivism says knowledge is based on social interactions and experience, knowledge reflects the outside world as filtered through and influenced by culture, language, beliefs, interactions with others, and by direct teaching and modeling...guided discovery, models, and coaching as well as the individual’s prior knowledge, beliefs, and thinking affect his learning

25 role of the teacher in this venue is to co-construct knowledge with the student, act as facilitator and guide, co-construct different interpretation of knowledge, listen to socially constructed conceptions Situated learning the idea that skills and knowledge are tied to the situation in which they were learned and are difficult to apply in new settings Vygotsky---learning is inherently social and embedded in a particular cultural setting learning in the real world is not like learning in school, more like an apprenticeship, with a guide and a model, this explains learning in factories, at the dinner table,

26 in the business, on the playground often described as “ enculturation”, or adopting the norms, beliefs, skills, language, etc. of a particular community emphasis that students should acquire skills and knowledge in meaningful contexts, with connections to “real-life” situations in which the skills and knowledge will be useful evidence exists that skills and knowledge can be applied across contexts that were not part of the initial learning situation Summary cognitive view sees students as active learners,

27 who initiate experiences, seek out new information to solve problems, and reorganize what they know to achieve new insights cognitive approach suggests that important element of the learning process is what knowledge the individual brings to the learning process...what we already know influences what we will pay attention to, perceive, learn, remember, and forget cognitive view that knowledge is learned, and changes in knowledge make changes in behavior possible behavior view is that new behaviors themselves are learned behavior view feels that reinforcement strengthens responses much of work on behavior learning principles have been

28 animals in a controlled lab settings, attempting to draw a few conclusions that can be applied to humans regardless of age, culture, etc. cognitive psychologists study a wide range of learning situations, focusing on individual and developmental differences in cognition---they have not sought general laws of learning knowledge is important to learning, the more you know, the easier it is to “know more” general and domain specific knowledge sensory memory...the initial reception of stimuli working memory...stimuli are initially processed, not kept long, need to keep these stimuli in action long-term memory...knowledge is stored for future reference

29 need to apply “handles” to it for easier retrieval The first step in learning is paying attention many factors in the class room affect student attention color, banners, posters, lighting, teacher’s actions and movements, calling students names, pacing metacognition is knowing our own learning and thinking processes an individual needs to understand how he himself thinks and learns ways of developing knowledge schemas, build frameworks, scaffolds on which to build and store new knowledge memorization, mnemonics (chain memory, “i before e except after c), acronyms

30 constructivism - --build accurate mental structures that reflect “the way things really are” new knowledge is abstracted from old knowledge knowledge is based on social interaction and experience situated learning---skills and knowledge are tied to the situations in which they were learned teachers functions are to guide, to facilitate, to con-construct knowledge, listen for students conceptions, ideas, and thinking, challenge, guide toward more complete understanding The best way to learn and remember is to understand. To make the information to be learned meaningful is often the greatest challenge to teachers.


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