Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance Evangelia Demerouti, PhD Athens, May 2004.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance Evangelia Demerouti, PhD Athens, May 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance Evangelia Demerouti, PhD Athens, May 2004

3 Outline Burnout: backgroundBurnout: background Measurement of BurnoutMeasurement of Burnout Research FindingsResearch Findings EngagementEngagement Burnout InterventionsBurnout Interventions

4 Burnout: ‘discovery’ Since 1974 (Freudenberger)Since 1974 (Freudenberger) Definition: Syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among people who do “people work” of some kind (Maslach, 1982)Definition: Syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among people who do “people work” of some kind (Maslach, 1982) Main cause: Emotional demands posed by clientsMain cause: Emotional demands posed by clients

5 Burnout: reasons for interest Negative consequences for employees (lack of interest in work – existential doubts)Negative consequences for employees (lack of interest in work – existential doubts) Consequences for clients (low quality of service)Consequences for clients (low quality of service) High costs for organizationsHigh costs for organizations Its excessive spread (around 20% of the employees)Its excessive spread (around 20% of the employees) Important social problem but still unclear conceptImportant social problem but still unclear concept

6 Causes of burnout Work pressureWork pressure Emotional demandsEmotional demands Role problemsRole problems Work-family conflictWork-family conflict Social supportSocial support FeedbackFeedback Participation in decision makingParticipation in decision making

7 Consequences of burnout Individual level DepressionDepression Psychosomatic complaintsPsychosomatic complaints InfectionsInfections Work-related attitudes Job satisfactionJob satisfaction Organizational commitmentOrganizational commitment Turnover intentionTurnover intention Organizational level AbsenteeismAbsenteeism TurnoverTurnover

8 Burnout and Personality NeuroticismNeuroticism Low extraversionLow extraversion Low hardinessLow hardiness External locus of controlExternal locus of control Low self-esteemLow self-esteem Type A personalityType A personality Passive coping stylePassive coping style

9 Depression vs. Burnout (clinical) Depression Depressive mood Depressive mood Unhappiness, displeasure Unhappiness, displeasure Weight loss Weight loss Fearfulness Fearfulness Sleeping problems (wake up early) Sleeping problems (wake up early) Guilt feelings Guilt feelings Suicide thoughts Suicide thoughts Indecisiveness Indecisiveness Attribution of the problem: sickness Attribution of the problem: sickness General General Low vitality Low vitalityBurnout Anger, aggression Anger, aggression Low pleasure Low pleasure No weight symptoms No weight symptoms No fearfulness No fearfulness Sleeping problems (difficulty to fall asleep) Sleeping problems (difficulty to fall asleep) Guilt feelings Guilt feelings No suicide thoughts No suicide thoughts Indecisiveness (complaint) Indecisiveness (complaint) Attribution of the problem: work Attribution of the problem: work Work-related Work-related Moderate vitality Moderate vitality

10 Occupation-independent conceptualisation of burnout Related to traditional work stressorsRelated to traditional work stressors Work stressors better predictors than ‘working with people’ (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998)Work stressors better predictors than ‘working with people’ (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998) Burnout symptoms parallel to phenomena in non-service occupations (e.g., fatigue, alienation, withdrawal, efficacy)Burnout symptoms parallel to phenomena in non-service occupations (e.g., fatigue, alienation, withdrawal, efficacy) Artefact of the utilized research designs: alternative hypotheses untestedArtefact of the utilized research designs: alternative hypotheses untested

11 Measurement of Burnout

12 Two ways of diagnosis (Company) doctors using diagnostic session - decision tree (Company) doctors using diagnostic session - decision tree Questionnaire (self-reports) Questionnaire (self-reports)

13 MBI OLBI Emotional Exhaustion (9): feelings of being emotionally overextended and drained by othersEmotional Exhaustion (9): feelings of being emotionally overextended and drained by others Depersonalization (5): feelings of callous, cynical and detached responses toward clientsDepersonalization (5): feelings of callous, cynical and detached responses toward clients Reduced Personal Ac- complishment (8): decline in one’s feelings of competence and successful achievement in work with peopleReduced Personal Ac- complishment (8): decline in one’s feelings of competence and successful achievement in work with people Exhaustion (7): feelings of emotional emptiness, overtaxing from work, strong need for rest and a state of physical exhaustionExhaustion (7): feelings of emotional emptiness, overtaxing from work, strong need for rest and a state of physical exhaustion Distancing from work (8): distancing oneself from one’s work, negative attitudes and behaviours toward work in general, work contents and objectDistancing from work (8): distancing oneself from one’s work, negative attitudes and behaviours toward work in general, work contents and object

14 Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Positive and negative worded itemsPositive and negative worded items Only the core dimensions of burnoutOnly the core dimensions of burnout Not context-specificNot context-specific Based on theory and not on empirical findingsBased on theory and not on empirical findings Cut-off scores: - clinical burnout - above the 75 percentile on both dimensionsCut-off scores: - clinical burnout - above the 75 percentile on both dimensions Demerouti, 1999

15 Example items OLBI & MBI-GS Exhaustion (OLBI)Exhaustion (OLBI) “After my work, I usually feel worn out and weary”“After my work, I usually feel worn out and weary” “After my work, I usually feel totally fit for my leisure activities” (R).“After my work, I usually feel totally fit for my leisure activities” (R). Distancing from work (OLBI)Distancing from work (OLBI) “I usually talk about my work in a derogatory way”“I usually talk about my work in a derogatory way” “I get more and more engaged in my work” (R)“I get more and more engaged in my work” (R) (1 = totally disagree, 4 = totally agree)(1 = totally disagree, 4 = totally agree) Exhaustion (MBI-GS)Exhaustion (MBI-GS) “I feel burned out from my work”, “I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on the job”.“I feel burned out from my work”, “I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on the job”. Cynicism (MBI-GS)Cynicism (MBI-GS) “I have become less enthusiastic about my work”, “I have become more cynical about whether my work contributes anything”.“I have become less enthusiastic about my work”, “I have become more cynical about whether my work contributes anything”. Professional efficacy (MBI-GS) Professional efficacy (MBI-GS) “I feel I am making an effective contribution to what this organization does”, “In my opinion, I am good at my job”.“I feel I am making an effective contribution to what this organization does”, “In my opinion, I am good at my job”. (0 = never, 6 = every day)(0 = never, 6 = every day)

16 Theoretical explanations

17 Demand-Control Model Job Demands Autonomy Karasek, 1979 Karasek, 1979

18 Effort-Reward Imbalance Model Internal Demands Salary Siegrist, 1996 External Demands Status, Self- esteem Development

19 Inequity Model Investments Outcomes Schaufeli et al. 1996

20 Job Demands Work Pressure Emotional Demands Work times Work-Home Role conflict

21 Job Resources Autonomy Social Support Supervisory Coaching Possibilities Self-growth Skill Variety

22 Balance Work pressure Emotional Demands Work times Work-Home Role conflict Autonomy Social Support Coaching Possibilities Self-growth Skill Variety

23 Job Demands-Resources Model Job Resources Support Autonomy - Feedback Etc. Job Demands Mental Emotional Physical Etc. Organizational Outcomes Demerouti et al., 2001 (Impaired) Health Motivation + + - +

24 Assumptions Unique Working Environment for every occupational groupUnique Working Environment for every occupational group 2 categories: Job Demands and Job Resources2 categories: Job Demands and Job Resources 2 Processes2 Processes Health Impairment processHealth Impairment process Motivational processMotivational process Job Resources can be Buffer against Job DemandsJob Resources can be Buffer against Job Demands Job Demands may undermine the Motivational Impact of Job ResourcesJob Demands may undermine the Motivational Impact of Job Resources

25 Research findings

26 Human services, production, ATC, N = 374 Self-reports, observers ratings (italics) Demerouti et al., 2001

27 Slide 26 Demerouti et al., 2000

28 Food Processing Industry, N=214 Job Resources Autonomy -.68 Participation Job Demands WP Reorgan Bakker, Demerouti, De Boer & Schaufeli, 2003 Burnout Commitment T2 LT Absence T2 ST Absence.63.58.62.67.96.92.21 -.20

29

30 Human Services, N=146 Bakker, Demerouti & Verbeke, 2004

31 (Im) Balance Impaired health Low motivation Impaired health Motivation Health Low motivation Health Motivation L H L H JOB RESOURCES JOB DEMANDS

32 Study among salespersons (N= 650) burned-out salespeople: lowest in-role & extra-role performance burned-out salespeople: lowest in-role & extra-role performance non burned-out salespeople: highest in-role & extra-role performance non burned-out salespeople: highest in-role & extra-role performance customer-exhausted: among the highest performers (in-role & extra-role performance)  compensation strategy customer-exhausted: among the highest performers (in-role & extra-role performance)  compensation strategy customer-depersonalized: in-role performance uninfluenced, extra-role performance diminished  loss-based selection, in a proactive manner customer-depersonalized: in-role performance uninfluenced, extra-role performance diminished  loss-based selection, in a proactive manner ineffective: highest similarity with the burned-out group (low in- & extra-role performance)  feelings of in-efficiency & poor professional self-esteem ineffective: highest similarity with the burned-out group (low in- & extra-role performance)  feelings of in-efficiency & poor professional self-esteem !!! The relationship between burnout – performance is not clear cut!

33 Reciprocal effects Exhaustion  Errors  more JD  more ExhaustionExhaustion  Errors  more JD  more Exhaustion Depersonalisation  negative behaviour  less JR  more DepersonalisationDepersonalisation  negative behaviour  less JR  more Depersonalisation Competence  good performance  more JR  more CompetenceCompetence  good performance  more JR  more Competence Negative or Positive Spiral...Negative or Positive Spiral...

34 Exhaustion I Job Demands I Exhaustion II Job Demands II Exhaustion III Job Demands III Personal Accomplishment I Personal Accomplishment II Depersonalization I Job Resources I Depersonalization II Job Resources II Depersonalization III Job Resources III Personal Accomplishment III Bakker, Demerouti, van Dierendock & Schaufeli, submitted Bakker, Demerouti, van Dierendock & Schaufeli, submitted

35 Work engagement

36 Towards positive psychology Most psychologists are busy with sicknesses instead of well-being Most psychologists are busy with sicknesses instead of well-being - Publications on negative vs. positive states are 17:1 (Diener et al., 1999) Causes of sicknesses are not identical with the causes of well-being Causes of sicknesses are not identical with the causes of well-being Absence of sickness does not automatically mean presence of well-being Absence of sickness does not automatically mean presence of well-being Different focus: instead of treatment and prevention, improvement and optimalization! Different focus: instead of treatment and prevention, improvement and optimalization!

37 Burnout vs. Engagement Exhaustion Cynicism Red. Competence VigorDedication Absorption

38 Work engagement: definition Engagement: a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli et al., 2004). It refers to a persistent and pervasive affective–cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual, or behavior. Dimensions Vigor is characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working, the willingness to invest effort in one’s work, and persistence also in the face of difficulties. Dedication is characterized by a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. Absorption is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one’s work, whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work.

39 Work Engagement VigorVigor At my work, I feel bursting with energyAt my work, I feel bursting with energy At my job, I feel strong and vigorousAt my job, I feel strong and vigorous DedicationDedication To me, my job is challengingTo me, my job is challenging I am enthusiastic about my jobI am enthusiastic about my job AbsorptionAbsorption When I am working, I forget everything else around meWhen I am working, I forget everything else around me I am completely immersed in my workI am completely immersed in my work

40 Engaged Employees Take personal initiative Take personal initiative Generate their own positive feedback Generate their own positive feedback Are also engaged outside their work Are also engaged outside their work Are tired in a different way Are tired in a different way Also want to do other things than working Also want to do other things than working

41 Prevalence %

42 Home Care, N=45.000 Job Resources Support Autonomy + Feedback Coaching Job Demands Workload Emotions Intimity Work-Home Burnout Engagement - + Client Satisfaction Efficiency + - Source: Taris, Bakker et al. (in prep.)

43 Slide 42

44 Burnout interventions

45 Overview of the strategies IndividualOrganization Focus Aim Identification Primaryprevention Secundaryprevention Treatment

46 Organisational strategies Identification Primaryprevention Secondaryprevention Treatment Risk inventarisation Screening Screening Regulation of work pressure Job design / task content Job design / task content Conflict management Conflict management Management Development Management Development Contact company doctor Contact company doctor Social-medical team Social-medical team

47 Individual strategies Identification Primaryprevention Secondaryprevention Treatment Self-monitoring Self-assessment Self-assessment Didactic stress management Work-Family balance Work-Family balance Time management Relaxation training Relaxation training Social medical supervision Social medical supervision Psychotherapy Psychotherapy

48 Success (meta-analysis) Van der Klink et al. (2000) k kk k 18 17 8 88 8 5 N 858 982 470 1463 d.08non-sign..51moderate.35small.68moderate Effect Cogn. therapy Relaxation Multimodal Organization

49 Critical success factors Stepwise systematic approach Stepwise systematic approach Adequate diagnosis and analyses of the problems Adequate diagnosis and analyses of the problems Combination of work- and person- oriented approaches Combination of work- and person- oriented approaches Active participation of all involving parties Active participation of all involving parties Commitment of the top Commitment of the top Kompier & Cooper (1999)

50 JDR- questionnaire Project team Project Acquisition Training Consultants Data via Internet Report Interventions Follow-up JDR-Project

51 JDR- questionnaire Project team Project Acquisition Training Consultants JDR-Project Data via Internet Report Interventions Follow-up Individual Feedback

52 Feedback Well-Being Source: www.hcmg.co.uk www.hcmg.co.uk

53 Feedback Job Demands Source: www.hcmg.co.uk www.hcmg.co.uk

54 Feedback Job Resources Source: www.hcmg.co.uk www.hcmg.co.uk

55

56 Summary and Future Burnout: Syndrome of our timesBurnout: Syndrome of our times More clarity regarding causality & consequencesMore clarity regarding causality & consequences Multi-dimensional approachesMulti-dimensional approaches JDR-model: flexible and static structureJDR-model: flexible and static structure Scientific - IntegrationScientific - Integration Practice – Application to organizations, teams, and individualsPractice – Application to organizations, teams, and individuals Future ResearchFuture Research Longitudinal, positive health indicators, reciprocal relations, burnout contagion and crossover, international researchLongitudinal, positive health indicators, reciprocal relations, burnout contagion and crossover, international research

57 E.Demerouti@fss.uu.nl Thank you for your attention!


Download ppt "Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance Evangelia Demerouti, PhD Athens, May 2004."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google