Presentation on theme: "Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance"— Presentation transcript:
1Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance Evangelia Demerouti, PhDAthens, May 2004
2Outline Burnout: background Measurement of Burnout Research Findings EngagementBurnout Interventions
3Burnout: ‘discovery’ Since 1974 (Freudenberger) Definition: Syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among people who do “people work” of some kind (Maslach, 1982)Main cause: Emotional demands posed by clients
4Burnout: reasons for interest Negative consequences for employees (lack of interest in work – existential doubts)Consequences for clients (low quality of service)High costs for organizationsIts excessive spread (around 20% of the employees)Important social problem but still unclear concept
5Causes of burnout Work pressure Emotional demands Role problems Work-family conflictSocial supportFeedbackParticipation in decision making
7Burnout and Personality NeuroticismLow extraversionLow hardinessExternal locus of controlLow self-esteemType A personalityPassive coping style
8Depression vs. Burnout (clinical) Depressive moodUnhappiness, displeasureWeight lossFearfulnessSleeping problems (wake up early)Guilt feelingsSuicide thoughtsIndecisivenessAttribution of the problem: sicknessGeneralLow vitalityBurnoutAnger, aggressionLow pleasureNo weight symptomsNo fearfulnessSleeping problems (difficulty to fall asleep)Guilt feelingsNo suicide thoughtsIndecisiveness (complaint)Attribution of the problem: workWork-relatedModerate vitality
9Occupation-independent conceptualisation of burnout Related to traditional work stressorsWork stressors better predictors than ‘working with people’ (Schaufeli & Enzmann, 1998)Burnout symptoms parallel to phenomena in non-service occupations (e.g., fatigue, alienation, withdrawal, efficacy)Artefact of the utilized research designs: alternative hypotheses untested
11Two ways of diagnosis(Company) doctors using diagnostic session - decision treeQuestionnaire (self-reports)
12MBI OLBIEmotional Exhaustion (9): feelings of being emotionally overextended and drained by othersDepersonalization (5): feelings of callous, cynical and detached responses toward clientsReduced Personal Ac-complishment (8): decline in one’s feelings of competence and successful achievement in work with peopleExhaustion (7): feelings of emotional emptiness, overtaxing from work, strong need for rest and a state of physical exhaustionDistancing from work (8): distancing oneself from one’s work, negative attitudes and behaviours toward work in general, work contents and object
13Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Positive and negative worded itemsOnly the core dimensions of burnoutNot context-specificBased on theory and not on empirical findingsCut-off scores: - clinical burnout above the percentile on both dimensionsDemerouti, 1999
14Example items OLBI & MBI-GS Exhaustion (OLBI)“After my work, I usually feel worn out and weary”“After my work, I usually feel totally fit for my leisure activities” (R).Distancing from work (OLBI)“I usually talk about my work in a derogatory way”“I get more and more engaged in my work” (R)(1 = totally disagree, 4 = totally agree)Exhaustion (MBI-GS)“I feel burned out from my work”, “I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on the job”.Cynicism (MBI-GS)“I have become less enthusiastic about my work”, “I have become more cynical about whether my work contributes anything”. Professional efficacy (MBI-GS)“I feel I am making an effective contribution to what this organization does”, “In my opinion, I am good at my job”.(0 = never, 6 = every day)
22Job Demands-Resources Model MentalJobDemands+(Impaired)HealthEmotionalPhysical-OrganizationalOutcomesEtc.-SupportJobResources+Motivation+AutonomyFeedbackEtc.Demerouti et al., 2001
23Assumptions Unique Working Environment for every occupational group 2 categories: Job Demands and Job Resources2 ProcessesHealth Impairment processMotivational processJob Resources can be Buffer against Job DemandsJob Demands may undermine the Motivational Impact of Job Resources
30(Im) Balance Impaired health Low motivation Impaired health Motivation JOB DEMANDSHealthLow motivationHealthMotivationLLHJOB RESOURCES
31Study among salespersons (N= 650) burned-out salespeople: lowest in-role & extra-role performancenon burned-out salespeople: highest in-role & extra-role performancecustomer-exhausted: among the highest performers (in-role & extra-role performance) compensation strategycustomer-depersonalized: in-role performance uninfluenced, extra-role performance diminished loss-based selection, in a proactive mannerineffective: highest similarity with the burned-out group (low in- & extra-role performance) feelings of in-efficiency & poor professional self-esteem!!! The relationship between burnout – performance is not clear cut!
32Reciprocal effects Exhaustion Errors more JD more Exhaustion Depersonalisation negative behaviour less JR more DepersonalisationCompetence good performance more JR more CompetenceNegative or Positive Spiral...
33Depersonalization III Resources III Exhaustion IJobDemands IExhaustion IIDemands IIExhaustion IIIDemands IIIPersonalAccomplishment IAccomplishment IIDepersonalization IJobResources IDepersonalization IIResources IIDepersonalization IIIResources IIIAccomplishment IIIBakker, Demerouti, van Dierendock & Schaufeli, submitted
35Towards positive psychology Most psychologists are busy with sicknesses instead of well-being- Publications on negative vs. positive states are 17:1 (Diener et al., 1999)Causes of sicknesses are not identical with the causes of well-beingAbsence of sickness does not automatically mean presence of well-beingDifferent focus: instead of treatment and prevention, improvement and optimalization!
36Burnout vs. Engagement Exhaustion Cynicism Red. Competence Vigor DedicationAbsorption
37Work engagement: definition Engagement: a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption (Schaufeli et al., 2004). It refers to a persistent and pervasive affective–cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object, event, individual, or behavior.DimensionsVigor is characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working, the willingness to invest effort in one’s work, and persistence also in the face of difficulties.Dedication is characterized by a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge.Absorption is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one’s work, whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work.
38Work Engagement Vigor Dedication Absorption At my work, I feel bursting with energyAt my job, I feel strong and vigorousDedicationTo me, my job is challengingI am enthusiastic about my jobAbsorptionWhen I am working, I forget everything else around meI am completely immersed in my work
39Engaged Employees Take personal initiative Generate their own positive feedbackAre also engaged outside their workAre tired in a different wayAlso want to do other things than working
44Overview of the strategies FocusAimOrganizationIndividualIdentificationPrimarypreventionSecundarypreventionTreatment
45Organisational strategies Risk inventarisationScreeningIdentificationPrimarypreventionRegulation of work pressureJob design / task contentConflict managementManagement DevelopmentSecondarypreventionContact company doctorSocial-medical teamTreatment
46Individual strategies Self-monitoringSelf-assessmentIdentificationPrimarypreventionDidactic stress managementWork-Family balanceSecondarypreventionTime managementRelaxation trainingSocial medical supervisionPsychotherapyTreatment
47Success (meta-analysis) kNdEffectCogn. therapy18858.68moderateRelaxation17982.35smallMultimodal8470.51moderateOrganization51463.08non-sign.Van der Klink et al. (2000)
48Critical success factors Stepwise systematic approachAdequate diagnosis and analyses of the problemsCombination of work- and person-oriented approachesActive participation of all involving partiesCommitment of the topKompier & Cooper (1999)
49JDR-Project Project Acquisition Training Consultants Data via Internet questionnaireProject teamProjectAcquisitionTrainingConsultantsData viaInternetReportInterventionsFollow-up
50JDR-Project Project Acquisition Training Consultants Data via Internet questionnaireProject teamProjectAcquisitionTrainingConsultantsData viaInternetReportInterventionsFollow-upIndividualFeedback
55Summary and Future Burnout: Syndrome of our times More clarity regarding causality & consequencesMulti-dimensional approachesJDR-model: flexible and static structureScientific - IntegrationPractice – Application to organizations, teams, and individualsFuture ResearchLongitudinal, positive health indicators, reciprocal relations, burnout contagion and crossover, international research