Presentation on theme: "Age of Absolutism – The Hobbsian Solution: Louis XIV’s 5 Rules of Absolutism 17 th & 18 th Century Monarchies tried to monopolize all the power and functions."— Presentation transcript:
Age of Absolutism – The Hobbsian Solution: Louis XIV’s 5 Rules of Absolutism 17 th & 18 th Century Monarchies tried to monopolize all the power and functions of the state. Absolute power in the hands of a single ruling monarch was embraced as a means to restore order and prosperity to Europe suffering from the collapse of Christendom, war, & even revolt. This claim to absolute power was based on a new steroidal assertion of the “Great Chain”. In this early modern claim of the Devine Right, Monarchs would style themselves gods on earth. Calling the period the “Age of Absolutism” is on notional value, we will see that this was never an entirely successful project in the West and there were always exceptions. The French Monarchy lead by Henry IV, advanced by Louis XIII & Cardinal Richeliu, “perfected by Louis XIV was imitated in Spain, Austria, and Prussia.” This lecture cribbed from Professor Robert Bucholz of Loyola University introduces the essence of the Absolutist program. You will have an opportunity to look in detail at how this program played out in other nations and with other monarchs.
Antecedents Henry IV Limmet the power of Nobles End Religious blood feuding with the Edict of Nantes Centralizing the Economy Build a beuracracy and limmet the power of Parliaments Louis XIII & Cardinal Richeliu Imprissoning opponents to further suppress power of nobility Further centralizing economy with increased investment in manufacture and merchantile colonial efforts in N. America Aggressive anti-Hapsbury foreign policy Fronde (1649-1651) Louis in ascended to the throne at the age of 4, at the age of 9 he had to flee the Louvre as the People of Paris joined the nobility in rebellion that ransacked the royal palace Louis began his mature reign with one thought in mind: NEVER AGAIN!
The King Must Be Godlike Louis began a systematic and comprehensive program of magnificence Declared that the French Royal style should be classical and had himself portrayed as Apollo the Greek sun king or as here as the Sun (note Louis is a Capernican!)
The King Must Be in Control Tireles worker Corps of professional secretaries drawn from the ranks of professional men (elevated to nobility for a fee!) NEVER NEVER NEVER called the Estates General Administered his policies and enforced the law using INTENDANTS Nobility domesticated at Versailles (see readings)
The King Must Be Wealthy Jean Baptiste Colbert continued the program of centralizing the economy and policy of mercantilism “The art of taxation consists in so plucking the goose as to obtain the largest amount of feathers with lest possible amount of hissing…” Pull out on Pg. 545 Tax at will, non of the English hastle of “redress before provision” Short run it was great, long run???
The King Must Enforce Religious Conformity Un roi, une loi, une foi 1685 Loius revokes the Edict of Nantes Protestant clergy exiled or sent to the galleys All others forced to convert or leave – many did leave
The King Must Have An Army! Built the most professional army in Europe to realize glory at home through military victory abroad Dual Goals: League of Augsburg & Nine Years War War of Spanish Succesion
Carlos II (1661-1700) “El Hechizado “the Bewitched”
APPARTS Consider these lessons as you do your APPARTS: Duc De Saint-Simon: An Assessment of Louis XIV Liselotte von der Pfalz: A Sketch of Court Life