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Process View & Strategy Part 3. Performance Measures NPV-IRR Based on the Book: Managing Business Process Flow.

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2 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Future Value (FV) $100, put it in a bank. Interest rate = 10%. How much after 1 year. P = 100. F? F1 = 100 +0.1(100) = 100(1+0.1) How much after 2 years? F2= 100(1+0.1) + 0.1(100(1+0.1)) = F2= 100(1+0.1) (1+0.1) = 100(1.1) 2 How much after 3 years? F3 = 100(1.1) 2 + 0.1[100(1.1) 2 ] = F3 = 100(1.1) 2 [1+0.1] = 100(1.1) 2 [1.1] = 100(1.1) 3 How much after N years F = 100(1.1) N

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3 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Future Value (FV); Present Value (PV) P: The initial vale MARR: Minimum Acceptable Rate of Return F= P(1+MARR) N P= F(1+MARR) -N P = F/(1+MARR) N P = F/(1+r) N r = the minimum acceptable rate of return =FV(r, N,PMT,PV,0 EOY) = =PV(r, N,PMT,FV,0 EOY) =

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4 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Present Value Index Table =FV(r,N, PMT, PV,0) = FV(10%,3,0,100,0) = =PV(r,N, PMT, FV,0) = PV(10%,3,0,133.1,0) =

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5 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Back to the PBP Example The initial investment of a project at the end of year 0 is 10 million dollars. Depreciation is computed using straight-line method with accounting life of five years and zero salvage value. Net income before tax and depreciation is 3 million dollars per year. The tax rate is 40%. Compute net income after tax in Year 1. Compute net cash inflow in Year 1. At the end of year 7 we sell everything for 5 million dollars. Compute NPV and IRR. Net Income Before Tax and Depreciation 3 Depreciation 2 Income Before Tax1 Tax0.4 Net Income After Tax0.6 Cash Flow of Depreciation2 Net cash flow per year2.6 This is true for the first 5 yeas.

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6 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Future Value (FV); Present Value (PV) But after year 5 we do not have depreciation. Therefore, the two million dollars depreciation is not a cost anymore. Our revenue will increases by 2- 0.4(2) = 1.2 million dollars. Net income after tax = 0.6+1.2 =1.8 Net Income Before Tax and Depreciation 3 Depreciation0 Income Before Tax3 Tax 0.4(3) =1.2 Net Income After Tax in Year 61.8 Net Income After Tax in Year 7 1.8+5-0.4(5) = 4.8

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7 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Net Present Value (NPV) I 0 = the initial investment F t = the net cash flow in period t r = the required rate of return Important note: NPV function in excel assumes that the first cash flow is at the end of year 1.

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8 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Internal Rate of Return (IRR) The discount rate (r) that causes the NPV to be equal to zero The higher the IRR, the better In Excel “=IRR(Series,Guess)” Compare IRR with MARR Here it is not important where the first payment is – end of year 1 or end of year 0. The NPV for IRR is 0 everywhere.

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9 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Your Mortgage; PMT and PPMT 100,000 loan 4% interest rate 30 years fixed Your monthly payment =PMT(monthly rate,#of months,pv,[fv], [type]) =PMT(0.04/12, 30*12, 100000) =PPMT(0.04/12, 1, 30*12, 100000) =PPMT(0.04/12, 61, 30*12, 100000) =PPMT(0.04/12, 121, 30*12, 100000)

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10 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Practice: Net Income vs. Net Cash Inflow The initial investment of a project at the end of year 0 is 10 million dollars. Depreciation is computed using straight-line method with accounting life of 4 years and accounting salvage value of 0. Total revenue is 6 million dollars per year. All expenses, excluding depreciation and tax are 2 million dollars per year. Useful life of the project (which differs from accounting life) is 7 years. At the end of the useful life the project is sold for 2 million dollars. Tax rate of operating income as well as capital gain is 30%. Compute profit per year during the accounting life of the project. Revenue 6 Operating Expenses2 Net Income Before Tax and Depreciation 4 Depreciation 2.5 Income Before Tax1.5 Tax0.3(1.5) = 0.45 Net Income After Tax (years 1-4) 1.05

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11 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Practice: Net Income vs. Net Cash Inflow Compute net cash inflow during the accounting life of the project. Net Income After Tax1.05 Depreciation 2.5 Net Cash Inflow (years 1-4)3.55 Compute net cash inflow per year after accounting life is over and before the last year of the useful life of the project. Net Income After Tax1.05 Depreciation added to the profit2.5 Tax on the additional profit due to end of depreciation (0.3)(2.5) = 0.75 Net income added 2.5-0.75 = 1.75 Total Net Income 1.05+1.75= 2.8 Net Cash Inflow (years 5-6) 2.8

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12 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy I Am Sure It Was Easy to Grasp By a CSUN Student I am sure it was easy to grasp by a csun student, but if not, you may look at it this way Revenue 6 Operating Expenses2 Net Income Before Tax and Depreciation 4 Tax0.3(4) = 1.2 Net Income After Tax (years 1-4) 2.8 Compute net cash inflow in the last year of the useful life of the project. Net Income After Tax2.8 Project Sold 2 Capital Gain Tax 0.3(2) = 0.6 Net Capital Gain 1.4 Net Cash infow 2.8+1.4= 4.2

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13 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Practice: Net Income vs. Net Cash Inflow What is the net cash flow of the project during its useful life. Compute NPV under 10% MARR and IRR.

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14 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Practice: Net Income vs. Net Cash Inflow An investment at the end of year 0 has a depreciation life of 4 years and salvage value of 0. Depreciation is computed using straight line method and is 2.5 million dollars per year. Useful life of the project (which differs from accounting life) is 7 years. Other revenues and costs of the investment remain the same over the useful life of the investment. At the end of year 7, all the assets are sold for 2 million dollars. Tax rate of operating income as well as capital gain is 30%. The net income after depreciation and tax at the end of year 1 is 1.05 million dollars. Compute the net cash flow in year 1. 1.05 + 2.5 = 3.55 It will remain the same in years 1-4 Compute the net cash flow in year 5. 1.05 + 2.5 – 0.3(2.5) = 1.05 + 0.7 (2.5) = 1.05 +1.75 = 2.8 Compute the net cash flow in year 7 2.8 + 2 -0.3(2) = 2.8 + 0.7(2) = 2.8+1.4 = 4.2

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15 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Composition of marks in one of your courses is as follows: Internet Games, 10 %; Weekly Quizzes, 30%; Midterm Exam, 20%; Final Exam, 40%. Suppose at the end of the semester, your grades are as follows: Internet Games; 80, Weekly Quizzes; 90, Midterm Exam; 90, Final Exam; 70. 1. Compute your overall average grade at the end of the semester. 0.1(80)+0.3(90)+0.2(90)+0.4(70)=8+27+18+28= 81 2. Suppose you have not taken the final exam yet. We have been asked to report your current grade in the scale of A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D+, D, D-, or F. Compute your numerical average grade before taking the final on the scale of 1 to 100. This numerical grade will be used to identify your letter grade. Compute Your Average

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16 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy 0.1(80)+0.3(90)+0.2(90)=8+27+18 =53 53 out of 60 not out of 100 Your grade = 53/0.6 = 88.33 Alternatively 0.1/0.6 =, 0.3/0.6 = 0.5, 0.2/0.6 = 0.6666 0.1666(80)+0.5(90)+0.3333(90)=8+27+18 =88.33 3. What do you need to get in the final exam to secure an overall grade of B+ in the course (an overall average of 86 or more). 53+0.4X ≥ 86 0.4X ≥ 86-53 0.4X ≥ 33 X ≥ 33/0.4 X ≥ 82.5 What you Need in Final

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17 Ardavan Asef-Vaziri August, 2013Process View & Operations Strategy Alternatively 0.6(88.33) + 0.4X ≥ 86 0.4X ≥ 86-53 0.4X ≥ 33 X ≥ 33/0.4 X ≥ 82.5

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