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Chapter 4

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**Converting Fraction to Decimal to Percent**

½ = .5 = 50% (decimal moves 2 places to right) Decimal to Percent to Fraction .75 = 75% = ¾ (decimal moves 2 places to right) Percent to Fraction to Decimal 150% = 1 ½ = 1.5 (decimal moves 2 places to left)

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**Multiplying & Dividing by a tenth, hundredth, or thousandth**

Multiplying by .1, .01, and .001 208 x 0.1 = 20.8 (decimal moves one places to left) 83 x 0.01 = .83 (decimal moves two places to left) 306 x = .306 (decimal moves three places to left) Dividing by .1, .01, and .001 816 / 0.1 = 8,160 (decimal moves one places to right) 51 / 0.01 = 5100 (decimal moves two places to right) 632 / = 632,000 (decimal moves three places to right)

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**Deductions and Take-Home Pay**

Income Tax Uniforms FICA Tax Dues Insurance Commuting Costs Parking Etc.

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**Deductions & Income Tax**

Withholding tax Withholding allowances More allowances Pay less Less allowances Pay more Use table

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**Deductions & FICA Tax Federal Insurance Contributions Act 7.65%**

Social Security 6.2% Medicare 1.45% New Rate Through 2012

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**Net Earnings Example packet-problem 3 on p. 65**

Elaine Kaufman works a 40-hour week at $8.75 an hour with time and half for overtime. Last week she worked 43 hours. From her earnings, her employer deducted FICA tax at a rate of and income tax of $32. Her employer also deducted $33.78 for health insurance and $27.12 for union dues. Regular earnings = 40 * 8.75 = $350.00 Overtime earnings = 3 * (8.75 * 1.5) = $39.38 Total earnings = $350 + $39.38 = $389.38 Deductions = $32 + ($ * .0765) + $ $27.12 = $122.69 Net earnings = $ $ = $266.69

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**More Percent Examples 67% of $489 = .67 x $489 = $327.63**

42 is ___% of 480 = 42 / 480 = = 8 ¾ 20% of $575 = .2 x $575 = $115 1% of $57 = .01 x $57 = $0.57 10% of $89 = .1 x $89 = $8.90 100% of $76 = 1 x $76 = $76 1000% of $87 = 10 x $87 = $870 ½% of $870 = ½ x $8.70 = $4.35 1/3% of $255 = x 255 = $0.85

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Fringe Benefits Fringe benefits are extra payments/benefits received for working for a company like pension, insurance, free parking, tuition, uniforms, etc. Shari Traxler is paid $9.75 an hour for a 40-hour week. Her employer also provides these fringe benefits: yearly pension contributions, $1,622.40; health and accident insurance per year, $956; free parking, $520 per year; free tuition for evening classes, $1,200 per year. (a) What is Shari’s annual wage? (b) What are her total yearly fringe benefits? (c) What are her total yearly job benefits? (a) $9.75 x 40 = $390 (weekly pay) x 52 (weeks per year) = $20,280 (b) $1, $956 + $520 + $1,200 = $4,298.40 (c) $20,280 + $4, = $24,578.40

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Net Job Benefits Job expenses are expenses paid for working for a company like dues, uniforms, commuting costs, insurance, tools, etc. Duane McCoy’s job pays him $11.25 per hour for a 40-hour week. He estimates his fringe benefits to be 29% of his yearly wages. His yearly job expenses are estimated to be dues, $375; uniforms, $580; commuting costs, $934. (a) What is Duane’s total annual pay? (b) What is the amount of Duane’s fringe benefits per year? (c) What are Duane’s total yearly job benefits? (d) What are Duane’s total yearly job expenses? (e) What are Duane’s net yearly job benefits? (a) $11.25 x 40 = $450 (weekly pay) x 52 (weeks per year) = $23,400 (annual pay) (b) $23,400 x .29 (29%) = $6,786 (annual fringe benefits) (c) $23,400 + $6,786 = $30,186 (total yearly job benefits) (d) $375 + $580 + $934 = $1,889 (total yearly job expenses) (e) $30,186 - $1,889 = $28,297 (net yearly job benefits)

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**Percent Relationships**

___ is 20% more than x .2 = 10, = 60 40 plus 6% of itself = ___. 40 x .06 = 2.4, = 42.4 ___ is 10% less than x .1 = 8, 80 – 8 = 72 60 minus 40% of itself = ___. 60 x .4 = 24, 60 – 24 = 36 240 is ___% more than = 60, 60 / 180 = = 33 1/3% 45 is ___% less than – 45 = 15, 15 / 60 = .25 = 25%

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Straight Commission Straight commission is earned when an employee sells a specific product for a company. It can be calculated as a rate per item or it can be a percentage of a sale. A salesperson who works a straight commission basis sold 5 copy machines at $4,500 each. The commission rate was 6%. The amount of commission was $___. $4,500 x 5 = $22,500 total sales $22,500 x 0.06 = $1,350 amount of commission

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**Salary Plus Commission**

Salary plus commission is when an employee is paid a set amount per hour plus a commission when they sell set amounts of certain items to stimulate sales. Mary Banjavic is paid a salary of $200 a week plus 4/5% commission on weekly sales over $7,500. Her sales last week totaled $14,100. Her total earnings for the week were $___. $14,100 - $7,500 = $6,600 $6,600 x .008 (4/5%) = $52.80 commission $200 + $52.80 = $ total earnings for week

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Graduated Commission Graduated commission is when an employee is paid commission an amount on a tier basis. Tony Bollini sells encyclopedias. His monthly commission is based on the number of sets sold in a month. He earns $45 each for the first 25 sets, $60 each for the next 25 sets, and $75 each for each set over 50 sets he sells. Bollini sold 27 sets in November and 55 in December. His total commission for the two months was $___. 25 sets x $45 = $1,125 2 sets x $60 = $120 $1,125 + $120 = $1,245 for November $1,245 + $3,000 = $4,245 for the two months 25 sets x $60 = $1,500 5 sets x $75 = $375 $1,125 + $1,500 + $375 = $3,000 for December

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**Finding Commission Rates**

Commission divided by sales. On sales of $34,000, a sales person earns $2,720 commission. The rate of commission is ___%. $2,720 / $34,000 = 0.08 = 8% rate of commission

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**More Finding Commission**

Susan Favre sold her home through Tri-Town Realty Company, which charges a 6% sales commission. Her agent was Vince Pineta. Vince had advertised Susan’s home for sale at $175,900, but was able to sell it for only $165,500. If Vince’s share of the commission was 3 ½%, he earned $___ commission on the sale. $165,500 x = $5, commission

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Finding Net Proceeds Joe Popoff, a collection agent, collected 90% of a debt of $5,600 which had been overdue 90 days. This collection rate was 5% more than the average collection rate for that agent. The agent charged 25% commission. The net proceeds of the debt were $___. $5,600 x 0.90 = $5,040 (amount collected) $5,040 x 0.25 = $1,260 (commission) $5,040 - $1,260 = $3,780 (net proceeds)

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Gross Pay - income earned before any deductions Salary - monthly or annual Hourly - regular and overtime Piecework - earn a set amount per item.

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