Presentation on theme: "WIRC Basic Course on International Taxation Yogesh Thar."— Presentation transcript:
WIRC Basic Course on International Taxation Yogesh Thar
Synopsis… Meaning of Royalty As per DTAAs As per Act Amendments by FA, 2012 Comparison of Act and DTAA Meaning of FTS As per DTAAs As per Act Taxability in India of Royalty/FTS As per Act As per DTAA Treaty override Taxability in case of Business Connection/PE in India Rate of tax on royalty/FTS November 30, 20132Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Synopsis Issues and Controversies Equipment Royalty Use of satellite Leased line circuit/connectivity /satellite-link charges Payment for software Subscription Charges/supply of information Payment for designs and drawings Indivisible Contracts Payment of Commission Payment for technical reports Case Studies November 30, 20133Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
November 30, 20134Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Meaning of Royalty – DTAA… Generally defined to mean “payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films, or films or tapes used for radio or television broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.” Indian DTAAs generally based on the UN Convention Model November 30, 20135Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Meaning of Royalty – DTAA Certain Specific Provisions/ExceptionsDTAAs Even gains from alienation of the rights or properties which are contingent on the productivity, use, or disposition thereof regarded as Royalty USA Even gains from alienation of the rights or properties regarded as Royalty Singapore Payment for use or right to use of any industrial, commercial or scientific equipment not covered Israel, Greece, Netherland, and Sweden and Belgium Specifically includes consideration for use of computer software/ Computer programs Morocco, Nambia, Russia, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan & Kyrgyz Republic Rentals and other income from cinematographic films considered as business profits and not royalty Libya FTS included in Royalty itselfAustralia, Brazil (through Protocol) Exclusion for shipping transactions in case of equipment royalty USA, UK, Singapore November 30, 20136Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Meaning of Royalty – Act… Explanation 2 to section 9(1)(vi) Wider definition than that in DTAAs In addition to that covered in DTAA, includes consideration for Transfer of all or any rights in respect of patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process or trade mark or similar property imparting of any information concerning working of or use of patent, invention, model, design, secret formula or process or trademark or similar property Transfer of all or any rights in respect of any copyright, literary, artistic or scientific work imparting of any information concerning technical, industrial, commercial or scientific knowledge, experience or skill Rendering of any services in connection with the activities referred to in the other clauses of the definition November 30, 20137Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Meaning of Royalty – Act Exclusions under the Act: Income chargeable under the head ‘Capital Gains’ Consideration for sale, distribution or exhibition of cinematographic films November 30, 20138Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Amendments by the FA, 2012… Retrospective amendments w.e.f “For the removal of doubts”… “it is hereby clarified” Explanation 4 to section 9(1)(vi): All types of Software Transaction is Royalty. Decision in Director of Income-tax v. Ericsson A.B. (16 taxmann.com 371)(Del HC) reversed. November 30, 20139Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Amendments by the FA, 2012… Explanation 5 to section 9(1)(vi): Definition of Royalty widened, irrespective of whether : The physical possession/control of property is with the payer; The property is directly used by the payer; The property is located in India or not. Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. v DIT (332 ITR 340) (Del HC) and Standard Chartered Bank vs. DDIT (45 SOT 494)(Mum) reversed Explanation 6 to section 9(1)(vi): Consideration for transponder Leasing, Communication by Satellite, Optic Fiber, etc. is Royalty, irrespective of whether process is secret Asia Satellite Telecommunications Co. Ltd. v DIT (332 ITR 340)(Del) reversed November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Amendments by the FA, 2012 Circular F. No. 500/ – FTD – 1 (Pt.) dated Assessments completed u/s. 143(3), in respect of which no reopening notice issued before April 1, 2012 cannot be reopened on account of these amendments Favourable Treaty provisions would still override DIT v. Nokia Networks OY  25 taxmann.com 225 (Del HC); CIT v. Siemens Aktiongesellschaft (310 ITR 320)(Bom); Convergys Customer Management Group Inc v. ADIT 58 SOT 69(URO)(Delhi)(Trib.); B4U International Holdings Ltd. Vs. DCIT  21 taxmann.com 529 (Mum. Trib.)` November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Comparison of Act and DTAA Royalty as per ActRoyalty as per DTAA Consideration for transfer of ‘all or any rights’ Consideration for use or right to use only Consideration for sale, distribution or exhibition of cinematographic films excluded Specifically covered in most of the DTAAs except Libya Scope of Software transactions widenedOnly copyright in software covered Process is deemed to mean all process even if not secret Only secret process covered Meaning of ‘right to use’ widened to cover even cases where the payer does not have effective domain or control Meaning of ‘right to use’ to be construed in narrow sense November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Meaning of FTS-DTAA… Two types of definition General wider definition: “means payment of any kind in consideration for the rendering of any managerial, technical or consultancy services, including the provision of services by technical or other personnel” Eg: DTAAs with Armenia, Austria, Germany, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, etc. November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Meaning of FTS-DTAA… General restricted definition: “means payments of any kind to any person in consideration for the services of a managerial, technical or consultancy nature (including the provision of such services through technical or other personnel) if such services make available technical knowledge, experience, skill, know-how or processes or consist of the development and transfer of a technical plan or technical design.” Eg: DTAAs with USA, UK, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, Cyprus, Finland, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal and Singapore, etc. November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Meaning of FTS-DTAA… MoU dated between India and USA: “Generally speaking, technology will be considered “made available” when the person acquiring the service is enabled to apply the technology. The fact that the provision of the service may require technical input by the person providing the service does not per se mean that technical knowledge, skills, etc., are made available to the person purchasing the service, within the meaning of paragraph 4(b).” Raymond Ltd. vs. DCIT (86 ITD 791) (Mum.) “mere rendering of services is not roped in unless the person utilising the services is able to make use of the technical knowledge, etc., by himself in his business or for his own benefit and without recourse to the performer of the services in future”. The MoU can be used to understand the make available clauses of even other DTAAs November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Meaning of FTS-DTAA… General Exclusions: services ancillary and subsidiary, as well as inextricably and essentially linked, to the sale of property other than a sale described in paragraph relating to royalty; services that are ancillary and subsidiary to the rental of ships, aircraft, containers or other equipment used in connection with the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic ; teaching in or by educational institutions ; services for the personal use of the individual or individuals making the payments ; or to an employee of the person making the payments or to any individual or firm of individuals (other than a company) for professional services as defined in Independent Personal Services. November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Meaning of FTS-DTAA Certain Specific Provisions/ExceptionsDTAAs DTAAs with no FTS clauseMauritius, UAE, Brazil, Indonesia, Libya, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, UAR, Bangladesh, etc. DTAAs not covering ‘managerial services’USA, UK Rate limitation applicable only in respect of contract signed after date of entry into force of DTAA. Norway Treaty wordings suggests that it is treated as FTS only if rendered in India for inbound services. Contrary decision: Ashapura Minechem vs.. ADIT (40 SOT 220)(Mum Trib) China November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Meaning of FTS - Act Explanation 2 to section 9(1)(vii) Exhaustive definition Definition similar to the wider definition in the DTAAs ‘Consideration for rendering any managerial, technical or consultancy services (including the provision of services of technical or other personnel) ’ No make available clause Exclusion consideration for construction, assembly, mining or like project undertaken by the recipient; or consideration which is chargeable under the head ‘salaries’ in the hands of the recipient November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Taxability in India as per Act… Deemed to accrue or arise in India - Section 9(1)(vi)/(vii) – where it is payable by: the Government; or A resident unless it is payable in respect of any right, property or information used or services utilized : for the purpose of or in the business or profession carried on by such resident outside India; or for the purpose of making or earning any income from any source outside India; or Payable by non-resident, where it is payable in respect of any right, property or information used or services utilized: for the purpose of or in the business or profession carried on by such non-resident in India; or for the purposes of making or earning any income from any source in India November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Taxability in India as per Act Explanation to section 9 Confirms the source rule of taxation, irrespective of whether services rendered in India or not Sufficient territorial nexus established. Inserted by FA 2010 Ishikawajima – Harima Heavy Industries (288 ITR 408)(SC) reversed Explanation upheld by: Clifford Chance vs. DCIT (318 ITR 237)(Mum HC); Jindal Thermal Power Company vs. DCIT (225 CTR 220)(Kar HC) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Taxability in India as per DTAA… Generally taxable in both the contracting states, i.e. country of source as well as country of residence Generally two rates of tax is provided: Higher rate for all residents; Concessional rate in case of ‘beneficial owner’ November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Taxability in India as per DTAA… Taxability also depends on Most favored Nation Clause (MFN) It binds the contracting country (‘A’) to offer to the other contracting country (‘B’) the same benefits which A may offer to a third country India has MFN clauses in tax treaties with Netherlands, Belgium, France, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Spain, Kazakhstan, Philippines and Hungary Illustration: In Finland DTAA, India has agreed for ‘performance rule’ of taxation of FTS as against source rule, where the services are performed in either of the states, in which case, the same is taxable only in the state of performance. Hence, this restricted scope also applies to some of the countries with MFN Clause, such as Netherlands, Belgium, France, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Taxability in India as per DTAA MFN may – Directly amend the treaty or may trigger re-negotiation for the amendment With respect to scope or rate or both May cover taxation of some of the items of income Illustrations: In Netherland, MFN clause applies automatically where any other OECD nation favoured in respect of rate or scope of taxation In Israel, MFN clause triggered if any other country favored after , Based on DTAA with Finland, Malta, Portugal, restricted scope applies - taxable only if it make available technology In Swiss Confederation and Philippines, MFN clause triggered only for re- negotiation, cannot apply automatically In Norway, applies immediately, but only for rate of tax and not scope November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Treaty Override Section 90(2) Beneficial DTAA provision override domestic provisions UOI vs. Azadi Bachao Andolan (263 ITR 706)(SC) Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. vs. DCIT (30 SOT 374)(SB) Maharashtra State Electricity Board vs. DCIT (90 ITD 793)(MumT) Pacta Sund Servanda Article 51(b) of the Constitution of India November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Taxability in case of Business Connection/PE in India Section 44DA Tax at normal rates Deductions for expenses is allowed, except Where not incurred wholly or exclusively for the business of the BC/PE Payments, other than reimbursement of actual expenses, made to HO or its other offices Books of accounts needs to be maintained u/s. 44A Such BoA to be audited and report to be filed with the Department in Form 3CE. The DTAAs too provide that where the income is attributable to a PE, such income would be regarded as Business Profit and not royalty/FTS. November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Rate of tax Rate of tax is determined based on rate in Act or DTAA, whichever is beneficial, subject to the provisions of section 206AA Section 115A(1)(b)(A)/(B) W.e.f. AY – 25% Prior to AY – 10% Section 44DA: 40%, taxable as business profits DTAAs – generally ranges between 10 to 15% In case of absence of PAN – rate as per section 206AA Section 195A – grossing up provisions November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Equipment Royalty ‘use’ or ‘right to use’ any industrial, commercial or scientific ‘equipment’ Equipment Not defined there has to be a nexus between the equipment and the ultimate activity, i.e. the equipment should enable the performance of the ultimate activity. “the use of, or the right to use” Positive act of utilization, application or employment of the equipment Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (126 STC 114)(SC) and BSNL vs. UOI (282 ITR 273)(SC) - expression “the right to use” means transfer of effective domain/control of an asset. Decisions: Dell International Services Pvt Ltd In re vs. 308 ITR 37 (AAR) Cable & Wireless Networks India Pvt Ltd., In re vs.  315 ITR 72 (AAR) Position after Retrospective amendment via Explanation 5 of section 9(1)(vi) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Use of Satellite Whether use of equipment Whether process Asia Satellite Telecommunications Ltd. V. DCIT (85 ITD 478)(DelT) ACIT vs. Sanskar Info. T.V.P. Ltd. (24 SOT 87)(TMum) Whether secret process DCIT vs. PanAmSat International Systems (9 SOT 100) - fav New Skies Satellite N. V. vs. ADIT  121 ITD 1(Delhi)(SB) – process need not be “secret” Explanation 6 of Section 9(1)(vi) Whether amounts to ‘use or right to use’ ISRO Satellite Centre vs. DIT (307 ITR 59)(AAR) Asia Satellite Telecommunications vs. DIT (332 ITR 340)(Del HC) Explanation 5 of section 9(1)(vi) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Leased line circuit/connectivity /satellite-link charges… Whether use of equipment Dell International Services Pvt Ltd In re vs. 308 ITR 37 (AAR Infosys Technologies Limited vs. DCIT (139 TTJ 18)(Bang)(UO) Whether process Favourable Dell International Services Pvt Ltd In re vs. (308 ITR 37) (AAR) Cable & Wireless Networks India Pvt Ltd., In re vs. (315 ITR 72) (AAR) Unfavourable Verizon Communications Singapore Pte Ltd. vs ITO (45 SOT 263)(Chn) Explanations 5 and 6 to Section 9(1)(vi) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Leased line circuit/connectivity/ satellite-link charges Whether use of standard facility Skycell Communications Limited vs. DCIT (251 ITR 53)(Mad) CIT vs. Estel Communications (P) Ltd.  (318 ITR 185)(Del HC) Pacific Internet (India) Pvt Ltd v ITO  27 SOT 523 (MumT) Expeditors International (India) Pvt. Ltd. Vs. ACIT 2 ITR (Trib.)( 153) (Delhi) Cable & Wireless Networks India Pvt Ltd., In re vs.  315 ITR 72 (AAR) HFCL Infotel Limited v. ITO’s case (99 TTJ 440) (Chd) Wipro Limited vs. ITO  1 SOT 758 (BangT) ACIT V. Infosys Technologies Ltd (MumT)(39 - E Bombay Chartered Accountant Journal, March 2008 at Page 638) Whether involves human intervention CIT V. Bharti Cellular and Others  319 ITR 139 (DELHI) - SC in 330 ITR 239 held that technical expert’s opinion to be obtained November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Payment for software… Copyright vs. copyrighted article Whether software is a good - Tata Consultancy Services vs. State of Andhra Pradesh (271 ITR 401)(SC) Para and 14 of commentary on Article 12 of the OECD Model Tax Convention – question whether royalty depends on the nature of the rights that the transferee acquires under the particular arrangement regarding use and exploitation of the program. November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Payment for software… Various software arrangements: Where it is a shrink-wrapped software Where software is embedded in the machinery/equipment purchased; Where software purchased for internal use; Whether software purchased for commercial exploitation; Where no right for duplication provided. Explanation 4 to section 9(1)(vi) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Payment for software… Decisions in favour of assessee: DIT v. Infrasoft Ltd.  39 taxmann.com 88 (Delhi HC); DIT v. Nokia Networks OY  25 taxmann.com 225 (Del HC); Director of Income-tax v. Ericsson A.B. (16 taxmann.com 371)(Del HC); ADIT v. Siemens Aktiengesellschaft (2013) 142 ITD 614 (Mum.)(Trib.); Qualcomm Incorporated v. ADIT  (58 SOT 97) (Delhi - Trib.); Sonic Biochem Extractions P. Ltd. v. ITO (2013)(23 ITR 447)(AT)(MumT); DDIT (IT) v. Solid Works Corporation (2013)(152 TTJ 570/82 DTR 316 (Mum.) (Trib.); Convergys Customer Management Group Inc v. ADIT (2013))(58 SOT 69)(URO)(Delhi)(Trib.); SKOL Breweries Ltd v. A CIT (2013)(153 TTJ 257) (Mum.) (Trib.); ACIT v. Sonata Information Technology Ltd. (2013) (55 SOT 455)(MumT.); November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Payment for software… Kansai Nerolac Paints Ltd. v. Addl. DIT  41 SOT 3 (URO); Motorola vs. DCIT (96 TTJ 1)(SB); DDIT v. Alcatel USA International Mktg Inc (43 SOT 31)(Mum.) (URO) Sonata Information Technology Ltd. Vs. ACIT (103 ITD 324)(TBAN); Sonata Software Ltd vs. ITO (6 SOT 700)(TBAN); Hewlett-Packard (India) (P.) Ltd. V. ITO (5 SOT 660)(TBAN); DCIT Vs M/S CIT Alcatel (ITA No.407/Del/2001); Lucent Technologies International Inc Vs DCIT. (92 ITD 366)(Del) DCIT vs. Metapath Software Intl. (9 SOT 305)(Del); ADIT vs. TII Team Telecom International (60 DTR 177)(MumT) DDIT vs. Reliance Industries Limited  43 SOT 506 (MumT) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
… Payment for software Decision in favour of revenue: CIT v. Synopsis International Old Ltd. (2013) 212 Taxman 454 (Karn.) (HC); CIT vs. Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.  345 ITR 494 (Kar); Cosmic Circuits (P.) Ltd. v ITO(2013)(58 SOT 364) (Bang.)(Trib.) Microsoft Corporation vs. ADIT (ITA No of 2005)(DelT) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Subscription Charges/supply of information Subscription for information of pure commercial nature without any special feature is not royalty Favourable: CIT vs. HEG Ltd. (263 ITR 230)(MP HC) P.T. McKinsey Indonesia. v v DDIT  (141 ITD 357)(Mum.)(Trib.) Online subscription of database Whether royalty Unfavourable: CIT vs. Wipro Ltd. (203 Taxmann 621)(Kar HC) ADIT v. Globus Stores P. Ltd. (2013) (140 ITD 103) (Mum.) (Trib.); November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Subscription Charges/supply of information Favourable: Hughes Escort Communications Ltd. Vs. DCIT (51 SOT 356)(DelT); Factset Research Systems INC, in Re (317 ITR 169) (AAR) ACIT vs. Infosys Technologies Limited (ITA No. 653 & 969/Bang./2006) Whether FTS Depends on make available clause November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Payment for designs and drawings… Sale of know-how/designs/drawing Whether outright sale can be equated with a royalty arrangement For royalty, only right to use the know-how is given But, on sale, the seller retains no control or rights in the property Favourable to assessee: CIT v Davy Ashmore India Ltd 190 ITR 626 (Cal) Pro-quip corporation v. CIT 255 ITR 354 (AAR) DCIT v. Finolex Pipes Ltd 106 TTJ 741 (Pune) CIT vs. Maggronic Devices (P) Ltd. (329 ITR 442)(HP) CIT v. Koyo Seiko Co. Ltd 233 ITR 421 (AP) CIT v. Klayman Porcelains Ltd 229 ITR 735 (AP) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Payment for designs and drawings… Favourable to revenue DCIT vs. Mahestic Auto Ltd. (51 ITD 313)(Chd); Union Carbide Corporation vs. Inspecting ACIT (50 TTJ 535)(Cal) DCIT v. All Russia Scientific Research Institute (98 ITD 69) (Mum) Leonhardt Andra Und Partner GmbH v. CIT (249 ITR 418)(Cal) Development and sale of designs If the arrangement is in the nature of sale and not service, mere customization of the design before sale would not make it FTS Abhishek Developers v. ITO (110 TTJ 698 )(Bang) Hindustan Aeronautics Limited vs. ITO (121 TTJ 242)(Bang) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Payment for designs and drawings However, furnishing of reports covering detailed designs, which are not in nature of sale, would be FTS AEG Aktiengesllschaft vs. CIT (267 ITR 209)(Kar HC) SNC-Lavalin International Inc. vs DDI T(118 TTJ 802)(Del) Dr. Hutarew & Partner (India) (P) Ltd. Cs. ITO (123 TTJ 951)(Del) GMP International GnbH, In re  321 ITR 411 (AAR) Make available clause also relevant November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Indivisible Contracts In case of comprehensive contracts, a single component cannot be segregated so as to tax it as royalty/FTS - contract to be looked at as whole CIT vs. Neyveli ignite Corporation Ltd (243 ITR 459)(Mad HC); CIT vs. DCM (336 ITR 599)(Del HC); DIT vs. Ericsson A.B. (204 Taxman 192)(Del HC); CIT vs. Sundwiger EMFG & Co. (262 ITR 110)(AP HC) ITO vs. Prasad Productions (125 ITD 263)(Chn SB) However, in these decisions, the contract was split into parts and each component was separately analysed Airports Authority of India, In re (304 ITR 216)(AAR) International Tire Engineering Resources LLC, In re (319 ITR 228)(AAR) Rotem Company, In re (279 ITR 165)(AAR) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Payment of Commission… Erstwhile Circular No. 786, dated – now withdrawn Commission for advertising, publicity and promotion outside India not FTS CIT vs. Toshoku Ltd. (125 ITR 525)(SC) Sherton International vs. DDIT (107 ITD 12)(Del) upheld by Del HC in 313 ITR 267 A.B. Hotel Ltd. v. DCIT (25 SOT 368)(Del) ITO v. Faizan Shoes (P.) Ltd. (2013) 58 SOT 245 (Chennai)(Trib.) Commission to lead manager No make available Raymond Ltd. Vs. DCIT (86 ITD 791)(Mum) Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. Vs. DCIT (30 SOT 374) (Mum) Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd. Vs. DCIT (2 SOT 784). November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
…Payment of Commission Referral/procurement fees/commission Adidas Sourcing Ltd. v. ADIT (2013) (55 SOT 245) (Delhi)(Trib.) CEAT International S.A. vs. CIT (237 ITR 859) (Mum) Cushman and Wakefield (S) Pte Ltd., In re (305 ITR 208)(AAR) Commission to reinsurance brokers No make available - DIT vs. Guy Carpenter & Co. Ltd (2012)(346 ITR 504)(Del HC) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.
Payment for technical reports Depends on make available clause Favourable decisions due to make available clause: CIT vs. De Beers India Minerals Pvt. Ltd.  346 ITR 467 (Kar HC) Romer Labs Singapore Pte. Ltd v. ADIT (IT) (2013)141 ITD 50 (DelT) ACIT vs. Paradigm Geophysical Pty Ltd. (122 ITD 155)(DelT) National Organic Chemical Industries Ltd vs. DCIT (96 TTJ 765)(Mum) Anapharm Inc. In re (305 ITTR 394)(AAR) Intertek Testing Services India P Ltd, In re (307 ITR 418)(AAR) Worley Parsons Services Pty. Ltd. (313 ITR 74)(AAR) Unfavorable in absence of make available clause Cochin Refineries Ltd. Vs CIT (222 ITR 354)(Ker) November 30, Bansi S. Mehta & Co.