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100 Years of Injustice  Last Civil Rights legislation passed during Reconstruction (1865-1877) –13 th, 14 th & 15 th Amendments –Civil Rights Act of.

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Presentation on theme: "100 Years of Injustice  Last Civil Rights legislation passed during Reconstruction (1865-1877) –13 th, 14 th & 15 th Amendments –Civil Rights Act of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 100 Years of Injustice  Last Civil Rights legislation passed during Reconstruction ( ) –13 th, 14 th & 15 th Amendments –Civil Rights Act of 1866  Installment of: Black Codes, Ku Klux Klan, Jim Crow –Severely restricted civil and voting rights for African Americans with the use of both laws and terror.  Plessy vs. Ferguson –Establishes rule of Separate but Equal  Finally in the 1950’s, movements towards equality arise

3 Move Towards Equality  Brown vs. Board of Education –Segregation is “inherently unequal” –Declares Plessy vs. Ferugson unconstitutional  Little Rock 9 –9 students blocked from entering formerly all- white school –Eisenhower sends federal troops to insure students get in  Civil Rights Act of 1957 –Did not accomplish much  Acts of nonviolence: civil disobedience –Sit-ins at parks, theatres, libraries, public facilities –“freedom riders”

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5 The Freedom Rides  Over the spring and summer, student volunteers begin taking bus trips through the South to test out new laws that prohibit segregation in interstate travel facilities, which includes bus and railway stations. Several of the groups of "freedom riders," as they are called, are attacked by angry mobs along the way

6 Setbacks  MLK Jr. arrested –writes “Letter from Birmingham Jail”  Eugene “Bull” Connor –Uses fire hoses and police dogs on black demonstrators –Images of brutality televised  Sixteenth Street Baptist Church –Four young girls killed in bomb explosion.  Malcom X assassinated –He had recently abandoned the Black Muslim faith  March 7 th 1965, “Bloody Sunday” –Police use tear gas, whips, and clubs against black marchers supporting voting rights

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8 Prominent Civil Rights’ advocates Prominent Civil Rights’ advocates  Rosa Parks- –refuses to give up seat (1955) –Leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott (lasts until 1956)  Martin Luther King Jr. –Advocated civil rights through nonviolent methods. –1963 March on Washington- “I Have a Dream” speech. –Assassinated April 4, 1968 in Memphis Tennessee.  James Meredith –First black student to enroll at University of Mississippi –Kennedy sends 5,000 federal troops to control riots  Malcom X –Founded Muslim Mosque Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. –More radical civil rights character- didn’t promote integration –Taught black supremacy and provided foundation for the Black Power Movement  Stokely Carmichael –Leader of SNCC –Coins the phrase “black power”- an assertion of black pride

9 Legislation  24 th Amendment – abolishes poll tax at the ballot  Johnson signs Civil Rights Act of 1964 –Prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. –Federal government has power to enforce desegregation  Congress Passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965 –Eliminates literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clauses that restrict black voting  Executive Order 11246: Affirmative Action –Civil rights laws not enough

10 Civil Rights Organizations  NAACP –National Association for the Advancement of Colored People –Formed in response to the practice of lynching –Goal- ensure political, educational, social and economic equality of minority group citizens of the United States and eliminate racial prejudice.  SCLC –Southern Christian Leadership Conference –MLK Jr. was a principle founder –Prominent force in civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience.  SNCC –Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee –Gave black youths a place in the movement. –Turns radical under Stokely Carmichael

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12 Black Panthers  Founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale  The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American revolutionary organization. –It was active in the United States in –It dissolved in 1967  Desired equality in four areas: –education –housing –employment –civil rights  The language of the Black Panthers was violent as was their public stance. –preached for a "revolutionary war" –They were willing to use violence to get what they wanted  An African-American party, but were willing to speak out for all those who were part of an oppressed minority group.

13  In the same year that the United States enters World War I, anti-black riots are held in St. Louis, Illinois and more than 100 black citizens are either killed or injured. More than 10,000 black New Yorkers hold the Silent Parade to protest the violence 1978 Unita Blackwell, founding member of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, becomes the first black woman mayor in the history of Mississippi in the city of Mayersville. She had once been denied the right to vote there

14 Site your source  ?q=civil+rights+movement&FORM=B IFD ?q=civil+rights+movement&FORM=B IFD ?q=civil+rights+movement&FORM=B IFD  /civilrights/a/civilrights1.htm /civilrights/a/civilrights1.htm /civilrights/a/civilrights1.htm   /black_panthers.htm /black_panthers.htm /black_panthers.htm


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