Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Movement 1890 - 1920. Blue Book The Progressive Movement was a time when people believed that the government was best equipped to correct."— Presentation transcript:
The Progressive Movement 1890 - 1920
Blue Book The Progressive Movement was a time when people believed that the government was best equipped to correct the ills of society. Are we in a Progressive Movement now? p. 334 – 335 Signs of the Times
Prison Reforms During the 1890’s and early 1900’s – chain gangs replaced the Convict Lease Program and females were housed separately. Housing, sanitation and quality of food were still poor. In 1915, the General Assembly created a juvenile court system.
Labor Reforms Labor Unions began organizing in the late 1800’s but most folks in Georgia did not support them. Child Labor Laws were finally passed in the 1930’s ending many sweatshops.
What’s a Labor Union? A labor union or trade union is a group of employees or workers having a common interest, such as higher wages, better working conditions, etc… who form to negotiate with employers for these things. Sometimes they will use strikes to get what they want – which can cost companies billions of dollars per day.
Temperance Movement The movement to make alcohol illegal in the US. In 1919, states ratified the 18 th Amendment. 1881 48 counties in Georgia made alcohol illegal. Alcohol would remain illegal for another 14 years.
Women’s Suffrage Women’s fight for the right to vote did not end until 1920!!!!! The 19 th Amendment was finally passed – however Georgia refused to ratify it. Rebecca Felton – being a long time Suffragette – responded “Although its embarrassing to apologize for the ignorance and stupidity of Georgia legislators – the right to vote an not be withheld from the women of Georgia.
The Populists Party Groups of farmers who formed together to create a political party – supporting the rights of farmers and the common working man against the rich industrialists. (the Bourbon Triumvirate & Atlanta Ring) The Populist Party was against Grady’s plan to bring industry to the south. They did not want development. They wanted to keep the south as primarily farm land.
Tom Watson & the Populists Lead the Populists (a.k.a. the People’s Party) The Populist Party at first stood for Civil Rights, condemned Black lynching's and even chose a Black man to be on a political committee. He gained a lot of support from Black voters because of this – which made the Democrats mad. After some political drama he began writing racist and anti-Semitic articles in the newspapers. The Populist party never regained power after that but Tom Watson, after several attempts, was elected to the Senate – only to die suddenly in his second year. The Governor at the time appointed eighty-seven-year-old Rebecca Latimer Felton as a temporary replacement, until Walter F. George was elected to fill out the remainder of Watson's term.
So why did Tom Watson make Congressional history? Rural Free Delivery (RFD) Bill Required postmasters to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge. Read p. 347-348
Rebecca Latimer Felton She was deeply involved in many causes but was also a leader in the suffrage and temperance movement (anti- alcohol). Long before women were supposed to have views and opinions she was delivering her platform through her newspaper. Folks listened to her. Atlanta Journal and Constitution eventually asked her to become a colonists. She was a popular writer who shared her ideals and views through the newspaper for 41 years.
The 1906 Atlanta Riot http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/stories/race_riot_o f_1906 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2U B3cJ-ht8
The Leo Frank Case http://streaming.discoveryeducation.co m/personalized/myContent.cfmhttp://streaming.discoveryeducation.co m/personalized/myContent.cfm http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/stories/new_south_and_leo_frank
County Unit System 48 242 120 Urban Counties = 6 votes (8) Rural Counties = 4 votes (30) Town Counties = 2 votes (121) In effect, the system of allotting votes by county, with little regard for population differences, allowed rural counties to control Georgia elections by minimizing the impact of the growing urban centers, particularly Atlanta. Based upon this classification, each county received unit votes in statewide primaries. The urban counties received six unit votes each, the town counties received four unit votes each, and the rural counties received two unit votes each.
County Unit System Just know that it gave greater voting power to the people in the rural areas (mostly white) and took voting power away from people in the urban areas (lots of diversity there).
Jim Crow Laws Plessy vs Ferguson (1892): http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html
Examples of Jim Crow Laws http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/jimcrowlaws/a/jimcrowlaws.htm Jim Crow is not actually a person, but the subject of a song performed by Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice. Rice was a white man who performed in blackface. Like most blackface performers, Rice denigrated Blacks through his music, his stereotypical behavior, and his rude jokes. Jump Jim Crow is a lengthy song that was a bonafide hit among Caucasian Americans in the early 19th century. The lyrics of “Jump Jim Crow” express several racist sentiments. First, Jim Crow is satisfied with his lot as a slave. He is sexually promiscuous. Jim Crow is also ignorant, and the song is usually sung in “supposed” slave dialect.
Disenfranchisement Poll Tax: pay a tax at the voting pole Literacy Test: had to be able to read to vote Grandfather Clause: Grandfather had to be able to read to vote White Primaries: only whites could vote in the primaries
Booker T. Washington Early Civil Rights Leader Born a slave in Virginia. Established and was President of Tuskegee Institute. Gave a famous speech at the Cotton Expo called the Atlanta Compromise Speech. He believed that the way for Blacks to achieve equality was for them to become trained in a skill and to become wealthy. He believed that only through economic achievement Blacks would be seen as equal. Black self-improvement.
W.E.B. Dubois Civil Rights Leader Born in Massachusetts. Had a good childhood. Professor at Atlanta University Helped founded the NAACP He believed that Blacks should not have to prove anything to be equal. He believed that the “Talented 10 th ” would lift up the rest. He believed that Blacks should demand equality and that is was the Whites who should change in order to achieve equality.
John and Lugenia Burns Hope John was the first Black President of Atlanta University (today Moorehouse College). Promoted education. Lugenia Burns-Hope: A social reformer whose Neighborhood Union and other community service organizations improved the quality of life for blacks in Atlanta, Georgia, and served as a model for the future Civil Rights Movement. Atlanta, GeorgiaCivil Rights Movement
Alonzo Herndon An African American barber and entrepreneur, Alonzo Herndon was founder and president of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company, one of the most successful black-owned insurance businesses in the nation. At the time of his death in 1927, he was also Atlanta's wealthiest black citizen, owning more property than any other African American. Admired and respected by many, he was noted for his involvement in and support of local institutions and charities devoted to advancing African American business and community life. Atlanta Life Insurance CompanyAtlanta http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/stories/alonzo_herndon_family
World War I
Causes of WWI 1. Mutual Defense Alliances Over time, countries throughout Europe made mutual defense agreements that would pull them into battle. Thus, if one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them. Before World War 1, the following alliances existed: Russia and Serbia Germany and Austria-Hungary Serbia and Russia Britain and France and Belgium Japan and Britain Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia got involved to defend Serbia. Germany seeing Russia mobilizing, declared war on Russia. France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France through Belgium pulling Britain into war. Then Japan entered the war. Later, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the allies. 2. Imperialism Imperialism is when a country increases their power and wealth by bringing additional territories under their control. Before World War 1, Africa and parts of Asia were points of contention amongst the European countries. This was especially true because of the raw materials these areas could provide. The increasing competition and desire for greater empires led to an increase in confrontation that helped push the world into World War I.
Causes of WWI 3. Militarism As the world entered the 20th century, an arms race had begun. By 1914, Germany had the greatest increase in military buildup. Great Britain and Germany both greatly increased their navies in this time period. Further, in Germany and Russia particularly, the military establishment began to have a greater influence on public policy. This increase in militarism helped push the countries involved to war. 4. Nationalism Much of the origin of the war was based on the desire of the Slavic peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina to no longer be part of Austria Hungary but instead be part of Serbia. In this way, nationalism led directly to the War. But in a more general way, the nationalism of the various countries throughout Europe contributed not only to the beginning but the extension of the war in Europe. Each country tried to prove their dominance and power. 5. Immediate Cause: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand The immediate cause of World War I that made all the aforementioned items come into play (alliances, imperialism, militarism, nationalism) was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated him and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia which was part of Austria-Hungary. This was in protest to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Serbia wanted to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. This assassination led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. When Russia began to mobilize due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances.Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Georgia & WWI World War I in Georgia Number who served: 80,000 – 100,000 Number who died: 3,000 Georgia played a significant role during America's participation in World War I (1917-18). The state was home to more training camps than any other state and by the war's end had contributed more than 100,000 men and women to the war effort. Georgia also suffered from the effects of the influenza epidemic, a tragic maritime disaster, local political fights, and wartime home front restrictions.
Forts The state had five major federal military installations when the United States entered the war in 1917. Fort McPherson: Atlanta,, Fort Oglethorpe: Dalton, Georgia Fort Screven: Tybee Island, Ga Camp Gordon: Chamblee, Ga Camp Hancock: Augusta, Ga. Fort Benning: Columbus, Ga
Other Ways Georgia Contributed to WWI 1.Textile Mills made fabric for uniforms 2.Railroads carried arms, ammunition and soldiers to ports to sail out. 3.Farmers grew more food crops, tobacco and livestock 4.Individuals planted “victory” gardens so that the soldiers could get more vegetables 5.3000 never came home to Georgia