Great Britain’s Future Problems 3 Main Problems? www.hippocampus.org
Causes of Pontiac’s Rebellion Continued conflict between N.A and British after War British failed to adhere to any treaties they had made with N.A. to stay off land Many tribes frustrated by this – Delaware, Ottowa, Seneca, Shawnee, others
Pontiac’s Rebellion Neolin, Delaware prophet – “They are our enemies, our brother’s enemies” Pontiac (Ottowa Chief), “we must unite and exterminate from our land those who wish to destroy us”
Proclamation Act of 1763 Purpose: As a way to prevent future conflict between British and Native Americans Points: 1. Barred settlement west of Appla. Mts. 2. Fur-traders must gain permission Reactions: -Land-Hungry settlers resented Great Britain -Settlers and Colonial governors ignored law
Sugar Act – Prime Minister Grenville Duty on foreign sugar, molasses Paying taxes was nothing new - It had rarely been enforced in the past – This act actually lowered the existing duty Led to increased smuggling by colonists, lowered business for merchants, ship builders
Sugar Act (cont.) Smuggling cases sent to Britain –British crown heard the case –no trial by jury of peers Parliament justified Act by stating “deeply in debt after war and needed colonists to play a part of the costs for securing the frontier” Non-Importation Agreement: colonists agreed to boycott British goods in protest
Stamp Act Passed by Parliament in Great Britain “No Representation” All printed matter Sons of Liberty –Artisans, lawyers, politicians, merchants –Protest (peaceful and violent) –Public meetings –Boston members Stamp Act Congress - Delegates of 9 colonies - Unified resistance “Parliament has no right to tax us”
Other Acts Quartering Act Declaratory Act Townshend Act * Search warrants *tax at colonial ports not within the colonies
New Prime Minister in Britain Changes? Lord North –Repealed parts of Townshend Act –Allowed Quartering Act to expire –New law: Salaries of Governors and Judges paid by Great Britain Takes away colonists’ powers Afraid that Governors, Judges would be in the “pocket of Great Britain”
Committees of Correspondence Purpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br. broaden the resistance movement.
The Gaspee Incident (June 9, 1772) Providence, RI coast
Tea Act (1773) 8 British East India Co.: §Monopoly on Br. tea imports. §Many members of Parl. held shares. §Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!) 8 Lord North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
Reactions to the Tea Party King George III and Parliament’s reaction Patriot colonists cheered the organized protest Some patriots were shocked and outraged by the disregard for property rights
The Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774) Lord North 1. Port Bill 2. Government Act 4.Administration of Justice Act Unified colonists more than ever – “threat to colonial liberty” 3. New Quartering Act
First Continental Congress (1774) 56 delegates from 12 colonies – Convention – no lawmaking authority Agenda:How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony represented.
Agenda September 5 to October 26, 1774 Final Resolves: –Expressed loyalty to Great Britain –Continue to boycott English goods –Right to legislate themselves –Meet again in 1775 if their demands are not met
The British Are Coming... Paul Revere, William Dawes & Samuel Prescott make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
The Shot Heard ’ Round the World ! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
The Second Continental Congress (1775) Raise Army, Appoint Commander, Olive Branch Petition
Siege of Boston British General Howe - Bunker Hill (actually fought on Breeds Hill) Patriot retreat, but over 1100 British killed or wounded Howe is replace General Gage Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold take Ft. Ticonderoga Henry Knox – cannons captured at Ft. Ticonderoga Patriots capture Dorchester Hts