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An Invitation to Health Chapter 10 Drug Use, Misuse, and Abuse Dr. Lana Zinger. ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

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Presentation on theme: "An Invitation to Health Chapter 10 Drug Use, Misuse, and Abuse Dr. Lana Zinger. ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Invitation to Health Chapter 10 Drug Use, Misuse, and Abuse Dr. Lana Zinger. ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

2 Drug Terminology Drugany substance that alters the user’s ability to function, Drug: any substance that alters the user’s ability to function, Including over-the-counter drugs, prescription medications, and illegal substances. Drug Misusethe intentional or inappropriate use of over- the-counter or prescribed medications. Drug Misuse: the intentional or inappropriate use of over- the-counter or prescribed medications. Drug Abuseexcessive drug use that’s inconsistent with accepted medical practice. Drug Abuse: excessive drug use that’s inconsistent with accepted medical practice. Toxicitythe dosage level at which a drug becomes poisonous to the body, causing either temporary or permanent damage. Toxicity: the dosage level at which a drug becomes poisonous to the body, causing either temporary or permanent damage.

3 Routes of Administration of Drugs

4 Drug-Drug Interactions SynergisticAdditive PotentiatingAntagonistic

5 Commonly Misused Over-The-Counter (OTC) Drugs Aspirin Aspirin Nonsteroidal Anti- Inflammatory Drugs Nonsteroidal Anti- Inflammatory Drugs Ibuprofen Ibuprofen Nasal Sprays Nasal Sprays Laxatives Laxatives Eye Drops Eye Drops Sleep Aids Sleep Aids Cough Syrup Cough Syrup

6 Prescription Drugs Potential Complications Nonadherence Recurrent infections, serious medical complications, and emergency hospital treatment. Physical Side Effects Heart failure, heart attack, seizures, kidney and liver failure, severe blood disorders, birth defects, blindness, memory problems, and allergic reactions. Psychological Side Effects Depressive symptoms vs. agitation and anxiety. Drug Interactions OTC drugs, prescription drugs, alcohol, vitamins and minerals, and food components.

7 Drug Interactions

8 Substance Use Terminology ADDICTIONADDICTION The habitual use of substances, such as alcohol, psychoactive drugs, and nicotine, and also to compulsive behaviors, such as overeating. The habitual use of substances, such as alcohol, psychoactive drugs, and nicotine, and also to compulsive behaviors, such as overeating. DRUGABUSEDRUGABUSE The use of chemical substances that results in physical, mental, emotional, or social impairment. The use of chemical substances that results in physical, mental, emotional, or social impairment. DRUGMISUSEDRUGMISUSE The occasionally inappropriate or unintentional use of a medication. The occasionally inappropriate or unintentional use of a medication. PHYSICALDEPENDENCEPHYSICALDEPENDENCE When a person develops tolerance to the effects of a drug and needs larger and larger doses to achieve intoxication or another desired effect. When a person develops tolerance to the effects of a drug and needs larger and larger doses to achieve intoxication or another desired effect. PSYCHOLOGICALDEPENDENCEPSYCHOLOGICALDEPENDENCE A state in which individuals crave drugs to satisfy some personality or emotional need. A state in which individuals crave drugs to satisfy some personality or emotional need.

9 Warning Signs Of A Substance Use Disorder An Abrupt Change In Attitude Mood Swings A Decline In Performance Increased Sensitivity Secrecy Physical Changes Money Problems Changes in Appearance Defiance of Restrictions Changes in Relationships

10 What Causes Drug Dependence and Abuse? The Biology of Dependence The Biology of Dependence Dopamine, glutamine, GABA, and norepinephrine. The Psychology of Vulnerability The Psychology of Vulnerability Difficulty controlling impulses, a lack of values that may constrain drug use, low self-esteem, feelings of powerlessness, denial, and depression or anxiety. Early Influences Early Influences Lower socioeconomic backgrounds, family instability, a lack of realistic, rewarding alternatives and role models, and increased hopelessness. Teen Drug Use Teen Drug Use Early use of tobacco and alcohol is linked with a greater likelihood of marijuana use, which in turn increases the likelihood of other illegal drug use.

11 Dopamine Levels For Cocaine

12 Factors Influencing Student Drug Use Race/Ethnicity Perception of Risk Sexual Identity Environment Alcohol Use

13 Common Drugs Of Abuse Cannabis Club Drugs/ Designer Drugs StimulantsDepressantsHallucinogensInhalants Marijuana MDMA, MDA, MDEA RohypnolGHBAmphetaminesCocaine Tobacco/ Nicotine AlcoholBarbituatesTranquilizers Narcotics/ Opioids PCPLSDMescaline Solvents, Aerosols Nitrates Nitrous Oxide

14 Cannabis Marijuana and Hashish The Facts The Facts Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in the United States (~12 million Americans). Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in the United States (~12 million Americans). Marijuana is a drug derived from the cannabis plant that contains the active ingredient THC. Marijuana is a drug derived from the cannabis plant that contains the active ingredient THC. How Users Feel How Users Feel A mild sense of euphoria, a sense of slowed time, a dreamy type of self-absorption, and some impairment in thinking and communicating. A mild sense of euphoria, a sense of slowed time, a dreamy type of self-absorption, and some impairment in thinking and communicating. The euphoria peaks within a half hour and usually lasts about three hours. The euphoria peaks within a half hour and usually lasts about three hours. Potential for marijuana withdrawal syndrome. Potential for marijuana withdrawal syndrome.

15 Some Bodily Effects of Marijuana

16 Do Students Want Marijuana Legalized?

17 Club Drugs (Designer Drugs) Alcohol LSD (acid)MDMA(ecstasy) Amphetamines Ketamine (Special K) FentanylRohypnol GHB GBL Meth-amphetamine

18 Club Drugs Ecstasy The Facts The Facts Ecstasy is the common street name for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Ecstasy is the common street name for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). MDMA belongs to a family of drugs called enactogens. MDMA belongs to a family of drugs called enactogens. How Users Feel How Users Feel MDMA is a mood elevator which produces a relaxed, euphoric state, but does not produce hallucinations. MDMA is a mood elevator which produces a relaxed, euphoric state, but does not produce hallucinations. The effects of MDMA begin in 45 minutes and last for 2 to 4 hours. The effects of MDMA begin in 45 minutes and last for 2 to 4 hours.

19 Club Drugs The Risks of Ecstasy Psychological Difficulties Psychological Difficulties Confusion, depression (neurotoxicity), sleep problems, drug cravings, severe anxiety, and paranoia. Confusion, depression (neurotoxicity), sleep problems, drug cravings, severe anxiety, and paranoia. Physical Symptoms/Side Effects Physical Symptoms/Side Effects Muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. Muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. Hyperthermia and hepatitis. Hyperthermia and hepatitis. Psychological Dependence Psychological Dependence

20 Club Drugs GHB/GBL The Facts The Facts GHB stimulates the release of human growth hormone, but has no known effects on muscle growth. GHB stimulates the release of human growth hormone, but has no known effects on muscle growth. When GLB, an industrial solvent, is ingested it is converted to GHB. When GLB, an industrial solvent, is ingested it is converted to GHB. How Users Feel How Users Feel Smaller doses induce euphoria and enhance sex due to a rise in dopamine in the brain. Larger doses can cause individuals to pass out and possibly fall into a coma.

21 Club Drugs The Risks of GHB/GBL Side Effects Side Effects Nausea, amnesia, hallucinations, decreased heart rate, convulsions, and sometimes blackouts/coma. Nausea, amnesia, hallucinations, decreased heart rate, convulsions, and sometimes blackouts/coma. Long Term Side Effects Long Term Side Effects Withdrawal reaction including rapid heartbeat, tremor, insomnia, anxiety, and occasionally hallucinations that last a few days to a week. Withdrawal reaction including rapid heartbeat, tremor, insomnia, anxiety, and occasionally hallucinations that last a few days to a week. The danger is greatest when GHB is mixed with alcohol or opiates. The danger is greatest when GHB is mixed with alcohol or opiates.

22 Club Drugs Ketamine (K) The Facts The Facts Ketamine is an anesthetic used by veterinarians. Ketamine is an anesthetic used by veterinarians. K blocks chemical messengers in the brain that carry sensory input thereby leading to hallucinations. K blocks chemical messengers in the brain that carry sensory input thereby leading to hallucinations. Side Effects Side Effects At high doses, K can cause delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function, high blood pressure, depression, and potentially fatal respiratory problems.

23 Stimulants Amphetamines & Methamphetamine The Facts The Facts Amphetamines trigger the release of epinephrine (adrenaline) which stimulates the central nervous system. Amphetamines trigger the release of epinephrine (adrenaline) which stimulates the central nervous system. Methamphetamine is a powerful addictive stimulant. Methamphetamine is a powerful addictive stimulant. Meth remains in the central nervous system and the body, producing prolonged stimulant effects. Meth remains in the central nervous system and the body, producing prolonged stimulant effects. How Users Feel How Users Feel Amphetamines produce a state of hyper-alertness and energy. High doses make users feel wired: talkative, excited, restless, irritable, anxious, and moody. Meth produces long-lasting toxic effects, including psychosis, violence, seizures, and cardiovascular abnormalities.

24 Stimulants Amphetamines & Methamphetamine Side Effects Side Effects Bingeing and crashing. Bingeing and crashing. Feelings of grandiosity, anxiety, tension, anger, agitation, paranoia, and impaired judgment. Feelings of grandiosity, anxiety, tension, anger, agitation, paranoia, and impaired judgment. Increased heart rate and blood pressure. Increased heart rate and blood pressure. Long Term Side Effects Long Term Side Effects Malnutrition, skin disorders, ulcers, insomnia, depression, vitamin deficiencies, sexual dysfunction and impaired concentration or memory, and, in some cases, brain damage. Malnutrition, skin disorders, ulcers, insomnia, depression, vitamin deficiencies, sexual dysfunction and impaired concentration or memory, and, in some cases, brain damage.

25 Cocaine An estimated 5 million people in the United States use cocaine. An estimated 5 million people in the United States use cocaine. Cocaine is a white crystalline powder extracted from the leaves of the South American coca plant. Cocaine is a white crystalline powder extracted from the leaves of the South American coca plant. Routes of Administration: Routes of Administration: Smoked (freebasing/crack) Smoked (freebasing/crack) Sniffed/Snorted Sniffed/Snorted Injected (speedballing) Injected (speedballing) How Users Feel How Users Feel Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system producing feelings of soaring well-being and boundless energy. After a brief period of euphoria, users slump into depression.

26 Forms of Cocaine

27 Some Effects Of Cocaine On The Body

28 Depressants Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates The Facts The Facts Benzodiazepines are sedative-hypnotics. Benzodiazepines are sedative-hypnotics. Commonly prescribed for tension, muscular strain, sleep problems, anxiety, panic attacks, anesthesia, and in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Commonly prescribed for tension, muscular strain, sleep problems, anxiety, panic attacks, anesthesia, and in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Rohypnol – date rape drug. Rohypnol – date rape drug. How Users Feel How Users Feel Low doses reduce or relieve tension, but may cause rapid mood changes, impaired judgment, and impaired social and occupational functioning. Low doses reduce or relieve tension, but may cause rapid mood changes, impaired judgment, and impaired social and occupational functioning. High doses produce slurred speech, drowsiness, and stupor. High doses produce slurred speech, drowsiness, and stupor.

29 Depressants Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates Side Effects Side Effects Physical and psychological dependence within two to four weeks. Physical and psychological dependence within two to four weeks. Cross-tolerance. Cross-tolerance. Mood and behavior changes, slurred speech, poor coordination, unsteady gait, involuntary eye movements, impaired attention or memory, and stupor and coma. Mood and behavior changes, slurred speech, poor coordination, unsteady gait, involuntary eye movements, impaired attention or memory, and stupor and coma. Synergistic effect when used in combination with alcohol. Synergistic effect when used in combination with alcohol.

30 Depressants Opioids and Nonopioid Synthetic Drugs Opium “Mother drug”; A base compound for all natural narcotics. Creates euphoria and escape from reality. Morphin e Main alkaloid found in opium; used medically to kill pain and sedate. Ten times stronger than opium. Heroin Narcotic drug derived from morphine that is 35 times stronger than morphine. Skin-popping vs. mainlining. Codeine A natural derivative of opium used as a cough suppressant or mild painkiller. Dilaudid Semisynthetic derivative of morphine, legitimately used as a cough suppressant and an analgesic for treating severe pain. Percodan A semi-synthetic cough-suppressing and analgesic medication which is more potent than codeine. Demerol Short-acting synthetic narcotic used as an analgesic or a painkiller; usually injected.

31 Depressants Opioids and Nonopioid Synthetic Drugs How Users Feel How Users Feel All opioids relax the user, and impart feelings of euphoria and provide pain relief. All opioids relax the user, and impart feelings of euphoria and provide pain relief. Side Effects Side Effects Addiction, lethargy, weight loss, loss of sex drive, anxiety, insomnia and restlessness. Addiction, lethargy, weight loss, loss of sex drive, anxiety, insomnia and restlessness. Overdose causes shock, coma, and depressed respiration. Overdose causes shock, coma, and depressed respiration. Long Term Injection of Opioids: infections of the heart lining and valves, skin absesses, and lung congestion. Long Term Injection of Opioids: infections of the heart lining and valves, skin absesses, and lung congestion. Methadone Maintenance Methadone Maintenance

32 Hallucinogens Natural Sources of Hallucinogens Morning glories, jimsonweed, nutmeg, mace, peyote cactus, and psychodelic mushrooms Synthesized Hallucinogens LSD LSD PCP PCP LSD: lysergic acid diethylamide-24; a psychedelic drug that produces distorted reality. LSD: lysergic acid diethylamide-24; a psychedelic drug that produces distorted reality. PCP: an anesthetic that blocks nerve receptors from pain and temperature without producing numbness; angel dust. PCP: an anesthetic that blocks nerve receptors from pain and temperature without producing numbness; angel dust. Definition Definition: a group of mind-altering drugs that affect the brain and nervous system bringing about changes in thought, self-awareness, emotion and sensation.

33 Inhalants Examples Model airplane glue, gasoline, paint thinner, transmission fluid, lighter fluid, liquid shoe polish, and fingernail polish remover. Potential Side Effects Gastroenteritis, depressed muscle tone, damage to the liver and kidneys, nervous system dysfunction, and bone marrow disorders. Definition Definition: drugs that produce vapors that cause psychoactive Effects when inhaled or sniffed.

34 Treating Drug Dependence and Abuse Recognize the reality of the problem. Consult a physician, counseling center, or local mental health clinic. Intervention modalities: Medical care Medication Detoxification Individual psychotherapy Marital and family therapy Behavior modification 12-step programs


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