2Drug TerminologyDrug: any substance that alters the user’s ability to function,Including over-the-counter drugs, prescription medications,and illegal substances.Drug Misuse: the intentional or inappropriate use of over-the-counter or prescribed medications.Drug Abuse: excessive drug use that’s inconsistent with accepted medical practice.Toxicity: the dosage level at which a drug becomes poisonous to the body, causing either temporary or permanent damage.
6Prescription Drugs Potential Complications NonadherenceRecurrent infections, serious medical complications, and emergency hospital treatment.Physical Side EffectsHeart failure, heart attack, seizures, kidney and liver failure, severe blood disorders, birth defects, blindness, memory problems, and allergic reactions.Psychological Side EffectsDepressive symptoms vs. agitation and anxiety.Drug InteractionsOTC drugs, prescription drugs, alcohol, vitamins and minerals, and food components.
8Substance Use Terminology ADDICTIONThe habitual use of substances, such as alcohol,psychoactive drugs, and nicotine, and also to compulsivebehaviors, such as overeating.DRUGABUSEThe use of chemical substances that results in physical,mental, emotional, or social impairment.DRUGMISUSEThe occasionally inappropriate or unintentional use ofa medication.PHYSICALDEPENDENCEWhen a person develops tolerance to the effects of adrug and needs larger and larger doses to achieveintoxication or another desired effect.PSYCHOLOGICALDEPENDENCEA state in which individuals crave drugs to satisfysome personality or emotional need.
9Warning Signs Of A Substance Use Disorder An Abrupt Change In AttitudeMood SwingsA Decline In PerformanceIncreased SensitivitySecrecyPhysical ChangesMoney ProblemsChanges in AppearanceDefiance of RestrictionsChanges in Relationships
10What Causes Drug Dependence and Abuse? The Biology of DependenceDopamine, glutamine, GABA, and norepinephrine.The Psychology of VulnerabilityDifficulty controlling impulses, a lack of values that may constrain drug use, low self-esteem, feelings of powerlessness, denial, and depression or anxiety.Early InfluencesLower socioeconomic backgrounds, family instability, a lack of realistic, rewarding alternatives and role models, and increased hopelessness.Teen Drug UseEarly use of tobacco and alcohol is linked with a greater likelihood of marijuana use, which in turn increases the likelihood of other illegal drug use.
12Factors Influencing Student Drug Use Race/EthnicitySexual IdentityPerception of RiskEnvironmentAlcohol Use
13Club Drugs/ Designer Drugs Common Drugs Of AbuseCannabisClub Drugs/ Designer DrugsStimulantsDepressantsHallucinogensInhalantsMarijuanaMDMA, MDA, MDEARohypnolGHBAmphetaminesCocaineTobacco/ NicotineAlcoholBarbituatesTranquilizersNarcotics/ OpioidsPCPLSDMescalineSolvents, AerosolsNitratesNitrous Oxide
14Cannabis Marijuana and Hashish The FactsMarijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in the United States (~12 million Americans).Marijuana is a drug derived from the cannabis plant that contains the active ingredient THC.How Users FeelA mild sense of euphoria, a sense of slowed time, a dreamy type of self-absorption, and some impairment in thinking and communicating.The euphoria peaks within a half hour and usually lasts about three hours.Potential for marijuana withdrawal syndrome.
18Club Drugs Ecstasy The Facts How Users Feel Ecstasy is the common street name for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).MDMA belongs to a family of drugs called enactogens.How Users FeelMDMA is a mood elevator which produces a relaxed, euphoric state, but does not produce hallucinations.The effects of MDMA begin in 45 minutes and last for 2 to 4 hours.
19Club Drugs The Risks of Ecstasy Psychological DifficultiesConfusion, depression (neurotoxicity), sleep problems, drug cravings, severe anxiety, and paranoia.Physical Symptoms/Side EffectsMuscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.Hyperthermia and hepatitis.Psychological Dependence
20Club Drugs GHB/GBL The Facts How Users Feel GHB stimulates the release of human growth hormone, but has no known effects on muscle growth.When GLB, an industrial solvent, is ingested it is converted to GHB.How Users FeelSmaller doses induce euphoria and enhance sex due to a rise in dopamine in the brain.Larger doses can cause individuals to pass out and possibly fall into a coma.
21Club Drugs The Risks of GHB/GBL Side EffectsNausea, amnesia, hallucinations, decreased heart rate, convulsions, and sometimes blackouts/coma.Long Term Side EffectsWithdrawal reaction including rapid heartbeat, tremor, insomnia, anxiety, and occasionally hallucinations that last a few days to a week.The danger is greatest when GHB is mixed with alcohol or opiates.
22Club Drugs Ketamine (K) The FactsKetamine is an anesthetic used by veterinarians.K blocks chemical messengers in the brain that carry sensory input thereby leading to hallucinations.Side EffectsAt high doses, K can cause delirium, amnesia, impaired motor function, high blood pressure, depression, and potentially fatal respiratory problems.
23Stimulants Amphetamines & Methamphetamine The FactsAmphetamines trigger the release of epinephrine (adrenaline) which stimulates the central nervous system.Methamphetamine is a powerful addictive stimulant.Meth remains in the central nervous system and the body, producing prolonged stimulant effects.How Users FeelAmphetamines produce a state of hyper-alertness and energy.High doses make users feel wired: talkative, excited, restless, irritable, anxious, and moody.Meth produces long-lasting toxic effects, including psychosis, violence, seizures, and cardiovascular abnormalities.
24Stimulants Amphetamines & Methamphetamine Side EffectsBingeing and crashing.Feelings of grandiosity, anxiety, tension, anger, agitation, paranoia, and impaired judgment.Increased heart rate and blood pressure.Long Term Side EffectsMalnutrition, skin disorders, ulcers, insomnia, depression, vitamin deficiencies, sexual dysfunction and impaired concentration or memory, and, in some cases, brain damage.
25CocaineAn estimated 5 million people in the United States use cocaine.Cocaine is a white crystalline powder extracted from the leaves of the South American coca plant.Routes of Administration:Smoked (freebasing/crack)Sniffed/SnortedInjected (speedballing)How Users FeelCocaine stimulates the central nervous system producing feelings of soaring well-being and boundless energy.After a brief period of euphoria, users slump into depression.
28Depressants Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates The FactsBenzodiazepines are sedative-hypnotics.Commonly prescribed for tension, muscular strain, sleep problems, anxiety, panic attacks, anesthesia, and in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Rohypnol – date rape drug.How Users FeelLow doses reduce or relieve tension, but may cause rapid mood changes, impaired judgment, and impaired social and occupational functioning.High doses produce slurred speech, drowsiness, and stupor.
29Depressants Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates Side EffectsPhysical and psychological dependence within two to four weeks.Cross-tolerance.Mood and behavior changes, slurred speech, poor coordination, unsteady gait, involuntary eye movements, impaired attention or memory, and stupor and coma.Synergistic effect when used in combination with alcohol.
30Depressants Opioids and Nonopioid Synthetic Drugs Opium“Mother drug”; A base compound for all natural narcotics. Creates euphoria and escape from reality.MorphineMain alkaloid found in opium; used medically to kill pain and sedate. Ten times stronger than opium.HeroinNarcotic drug derived from morphine that is 35 times stronger than morphine. Skin-popping vs. mainlining.CodeineA natural derivative of opium used as a cough suppressant or mild painkiller.DilaudidSemisynthetic derivative of morphine, legitimately used as a cough suppressant and an analgesic for treating severe pain.PercodanA semi-synthetic cough-suppressing and analgesic medication which is more potent than codeine.DemerolShort-acting synthetic narcotic used as an analgesic or a painkiller; usually injected.
31Depressants Opioids and Nonopioid Synthetic Drugs How Users FeelAll opioids relax the user, and impart feelings of euphoria and provide pain relief.Side EffectsAddiction, lethargy, weight loss, loss of sex drive, anxiety, insomnia and restlessness.Overdose causes shock, coma, and depressed respiration.Long Term Injection of Opioids: infections of the heart lining and valves, skin absesses, and lung congestion.Methadone Maintenance
32HallucinogensDefinition: a group of mind-altering drugs that affect thebrain and nervous system bringing about changes in thought,self-awareness, emotion and sensation.Natural Sources of HallucinogensMorning glories, jimsonweed, nutmeg, mace, peyote cactus, and psychodelic mushroomsSynthesized HallucinogensLSDPCPLSD: lysergic acid diethylamide-24; a psychedelic drug that produces distorted reality.PCP: an anesthetic that blocks nerve receptors from pain and temperature without producing numbness; angel dust.
33InhalantsDefinition: drugs that produce vapors that cause psychoactiveEffects when inhaled or sniffed.ExamplesModel airplane glue, gasoline, paint thinner, transmission fluid, lighter fluid, liquid shoe polish, and fingernail polish remover.Potential Side EffectsGastroenteritis, depressed muscle tone, damage to the liver and kidneys, nervous system dysfunction, and bone marrow disorders.
34Treating Drug Dependence and Abuse Recognize the reality of the problem.Consult a physician, counseling center, or local mental health clinic.Intervention modalities:Medical careMedicationDetoxificationIndividual psychotherapyMarital and family therapyBehavior modification12-step programs