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Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Laurence G Williams.

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Presentation on theme: "Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Laurence G Williams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Laurence G Williams FREng Professor of Nuclear Safety & Regulation University of Central Lancashire Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 The Relationship between Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards

2 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Nuclear safety is about protecting people and the environment from plant malfunction and human error What is nuclear safety? Potential Hazards From Normal Operations & Accidents Nuclear Safety Workers Public Environment The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards

3 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 What is nuclear security? Workers Public Environment Nuclear Security Potential Hazards From Malicious Acts Nuclear security is about protecting people and the environment from malicious acts The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards

4 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 What is nuclear safeguards? Workers Public Environment Nuclear Security Nuclear safeguards is about protecting people and the environment from the theft or diversion of nuclear materials and technologies that could be used to proliferate nuclear weapons Potential Hazards from loss of Safeguards The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards

5 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Workers Public Environment Potential Hazards From Malicious Acts Security Safeguards Potential Hazards from loss of Safeguards Potential Hazards From Normal Operations & Accidents Safety Workers, the public and the environment require protection from plant malfunction, human error, malicious acts and proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies Why have a coordinated approach to the 3 “S”s? The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards

6 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Malfunction, human errors Malevolent acts by non- State actors Misuse by State The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards

7 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Why have a coordinated approach to the 3 “S”s? The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Nuclear security is necessary but not sufficient for the protection of people and the environment

8 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Why have a coordinated approach to the 3 “S”s? The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Nuclear security is necessary but not sufficient for the protection of people and the environment Similarly nuclear safety is necessary for the protection of people and the environmental but again it is not sufficient

9 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Why have a coordinated approach to the 3 “S”s? The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Nuclear security is necessary but not sufficient for the protection of people and the environment Similarly nuclear safety is necessary for the protection of people and the environmental but again it is not sufficient The effective application of non-proliferation safeguards is again necessary but not sufficient

10 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Total Protection: The Case for an Integrated Approach to Nuclear Safety Nuclear Security and Safeguards Many nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards issues are not mutually exclusive The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Potential Hazards From Malicious Acts Potential Hazards From Normal Operation & Accidents Potential Hazards from Diversion of Nuclear Materials & Technologies

11 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Total Protection: The Case for an Integrated Approach to Nuclear Safety Nuclear Security and Safeguards The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Potential Hazards From Malicious Acts Potential Hazards From Normal Operation & Accidents Potential Hazards from Diversion of Nuclear Materials & Technologies In these areas it is necessary to have an integrated approach to ensure that the solutions for one do not adversely affect the other

12 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Why have a coordinated approach to the 3 “S”s? The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards All 3 are needed to provide the Continuum of Protection society needs

13 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Why have a coordinated approach to the 3 “S”s? The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Many examples of either nuclear safety or nuclear security have been compromised by through a lack of coordination Fences Plant configuration controls Armed protection forces Safety access points Etc.

14 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Total Protection: The Case for an Integrated Approach to Nuclear Safety Nuclear Security and Safeguards The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards There are important synergies in the measures used to deliver nuclear safety, nuclear security and non-proliferation safeguards For effective protection all three areas need to treated in a coordinated way Nuclear safety, nuclear security and where appropriate safeguards professionals need to work together

15 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Total Protection: The Case for an Integrated Approach to Nuclear Safety Nuclear Security and Safeguards The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards There needs to be much closer integration of nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards approaches in: design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations the transport of nuclear and radioactive materials the use of radioactive sources

16 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Responsibility Licensee responsible for safety & security Responsibility for nuclear safety is more easily discharged Responsibility for security is more problematic Not in complete control Cannot define the Threat Cannot carry out all the actions to reduce the Threat Government is in control of defining the Threat

17 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Safety & Security Communities Nuclear safety and security practitioners have had little in common Developed from different communities Nuclear safety community comprised engineers and scientists who undertake detailed design and analysis to demonstrate the behaviour of nuclear plants and processes and to determine risk Nuclear security community has been shrouded in secrecy and operated within a “need to know” culture

18 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Risk Evaluation Nuclear safety is about understanding plant failure characteristics and human error providing effective engineered or administrative barriers to counter such failures and mitigation of the consequences using numerical approach to evaluate risk and hence acceptability

19 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Risk Evaluation Nuclear security is about protecting against unknown, possibly unquantifiable, malicious acts evaluate risk from specifically defined event

20 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Risk Management In the nuclear safety world risk is evaluated through a detailed understanding of plant and process failure mechanisms detailed technical analyses enables defence in depth to be designed in and effectively managed

21 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Risk Management In the nuclear security world the nature and probability of the threat is not as easily amenable to calculation risk is more difficult to quantify risk is managed in conjunction with others, possibly including an armed protection force

22 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Culture Nuclear safety culture is well established Nuclear security culture is in its infancy World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS) Guide Culture is about beliefs and values

23 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Culture - beliefs In the case of nuclear safety culture Staff believe that accidents can happen For nuclear security it is important for staff to believe that: Nuclear security is important in combating terrorist threats Credible threats nuclear materials exist at all times

24 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Challenges The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Culture - Values In the case of nuclear safety culture Staff recognise the nuclear safety is their responsibility For nuclear security it is important for staff to recognise that: Maintaining effective security is the responsibility of everyone in the organisation they should challenge, question and report security concerns

25 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Effective Organizations The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards To be effective, nuclear safety and security staff will need to work together to meet the above challenges Nuclear Security must be given the same recognition at Board level as nuclear safety and environmental protection Organization should have an integrated nuclear safety and security culture An effective organization will have an integrated approach to the management of nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards

26 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards MSc Nuclear Safety, Security & Safeguards UCLan Contribution to Skills Module 1: Introduction to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Module 2: Nuclear Safety Law and Regulation Module 3: The Delivery of Nuclear Safety Module 4: Nuclear Security & Safeguards Law and Regulation Module 5: The Delivery of Nuclear Security & Safeguards Module 6: Leadership and Management Module 7: Research Methodology

27 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Conclusions The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Protection of workers, the public and the environment depends upon the effective delivery of nuclear safety, nuclear security and non-proliferation safeguards

28 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Conclusions The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Nuclear safety, nuclear security and non-proliferation safeguards communities have developed separately for understandable reasons but to deliver a sustainable nuclear programme in the future they need to work together

29 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Conclusions The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards The risks to society that arise from the use of nuclear energy can be reduced through the effective integration of our approach to nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards within Government Regulators Licensees Nuclear supply chain

30 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 Safeguards: Non-Proliferation Agreements and Additional Protocols Safety: Int ’ l Safety Standards And Conventions Security: Physical Protection, Detection and Response, Information; Conventions and Recommendations SYNERGY Safeguards Safety Security Promotes the Peaceful, Safe and Secure use of Nuclear Technology The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards

31 Ensuring Safety, Security and Safeguards in Nuclear Power: Opportunities and Challenges of an Integrated Approach – Preston 12 June 2013 The Relationship between Nuclear safety, Security and Safeguards Thank You


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