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Revolution from Above: Stalin’s Purges Do Now: Create a caption for the image below IB Topic 3: Authoritarian states – Theme 2: Establishment of authoritarian.

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Presentation on theme: "Revolution from Above: Stalin’s Purges Do Now: Create a caption for the image below IB Topic 3: Authoritarian states – Theme 2: Establishment of authoritarian."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolution from Above: Stalin’s Purges Do Now: Create a caption for the image below IB Topic 3: Authoritarian states – Theme 2: Establishment of authoritarian and single party states Methods: Use of Force Nature, Extent & Treatment of the Opposition 10/18/13 Share caption with a partner

2 What do you already know? (Background) Source A: Extract from Hope Against Hope by N Mandelstam, London, 1971, in which Nadezhda describes her husband’s treatment. Source B: Bukharin’s confession taken from the official report of court proceedings of his trial in Moscow, in March Source C: Extract from an article entitled The Results of the Trial, written by Trotsky and published in his Opposition Bulletin of Source D: Extract from Mastering Modern World History by Norman Lowe, London, Source E: Contemporary photograph of a watchtower at a Gulag camp in Chukotka. Osip Mandelstam Nicolai Bukharin Leon Trotsky Secondary Source Information Gulags

3 Stations Directions Procedure: Approx. 6-7 minutes per station Each station = Paper 1 question (1-3) – 2 sets of stations (1-3 & 1-3) Per 5 Groups: 1a. Alex A, Maslov, Miguel 2a. Coby, Alex S, Claire 3a. Hannah, Brandon, Nicole P 1b. Trent, Daniel S, Chris 2b. Deven, Alex P, Nicole C, 3b. Daniel M, Zoe, Steph, Ralph

4 Stations Directions Procedure: Approx. 6-7 minutes per station Each station = Paper 1 question (1-3) – 2 sets of stations (1-3 & 1-3) Per 6 Groups: 1a. Emma, Noah 2a. Alexis, Riddle 3a. Sarah, James 1b. Carina, Sam, Eric 2b. Annie, Zack 3b. Ryan, Jyothi

5 Stations Directions Procedure: Approx. 5-6 minutes per station Each station = Paper 1 question – 1 st & 2 nd stations: write down notes/ bulleted points to answer questions – 3 rd & 4 th station: Use notes to begin narrative Per 9 Groups: 1.Justin, Sam M, Victoria 2.Emily, Lucas 3.Sam C, Tori 4.Kiersten, Ezra 5.Hunter, Shane 6.Jake, Brett,

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9 Question 1 (a & b): Understand Historical Sources 1a: Why according to Source B, did Bukharin make a re- evaluation of his past? 3 marks = give at least 3 specific pieces of evidence from the document Paraphrase to save time 1b: What message is conveyed by Source E? 2 marks = 2 clear and separate points re: message of the source Ex. "One message conveyed by the source is ______, because the source represents ________. A second message conveyed by the source is ______, because the source _________.”

10 Question 2: Compare and Contrast Historical Sources as Evidence In what ways do the views expressed in Source C support the conclusions expressed in Source D? Use O-P-V-L to aid in comparisons/contrasts Very often = a primary vs. a secondary/ historiography source 3 Comparisons 3 Contrasts 1-2 paragraphs two paragraphs that include a running comparison/ contrast of the two sources Ex: "The sources contrast in While Source __ conveys , Source __ suggests "

11 Question 3: Explain the Importance and Limitations of the Source (O-P-V-L) With reference to their Origin and Purpose, assess the value and limitations of Sources A and B for historians studying Stalin’s purges Evaluate the sources separately In narrative form (2 paragraphs, not bulleted lists) Ex. "The origin of this source is (what, who, when, where - take from the source details) The purpose of this source was (why it was made, for whom). The source is valuable because (refer to origin). The source is also valuable because (refer to purpose). The source is limited because (refer to origin). The source is also limited because (refer to purpose)."

12 Closure What is the most challenging component of Paper 1?

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14 Mandelstam in 1934, first arrestMandelstam in 1938, second arrest, a few months before he died in the camps

15 Bukharin, Nikolai ( )  Bolshevik before the revolution  Architect of NEP  Editor of Pravda  Head of Comintern  Formed bloc with Zinoviev, Kamenev and Stalin in 1923 against Trotsky  Broke with Stalin in 1928 to lead the Right Opposition  Expelled in 1929 from the party for his thoughts, he recanted soon afterwards  Executed after the Third Moscow Trial in 1938  Under Gorbachev, Bukharin’s wife revealed that his confession was forced and published his hitherto secret rebuttal

16 Bulletin of the Russian Opposition 1929 to 1941 voice of the communist opposition in USSR “Old Bolsheviks” fought to keep the October Revolution and Communist International on the proletarian internationalist course for which Lenin fought. Andrey Vyshinsky  State Prosecutor in Moscow Show Trials

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18 The most northeasterly region of present day Russia “at the edge of the earth, one of Russia’s most remote and impoverished regions, a frozen expanse bigger than Texas, with a population that could fit in the Astrodome” -NY Times, 2007 “During the cold war, Chukotka was a closed border zone, bristling with military installations that are now abandoned lots filled with the rusting detritus of Soviet power. Government permission is still required before a visit, but the Arctic beckons and is, slowly, opening itself to the possibilities of a new Russia” -NY Times, 2007

19 How to Paper 1:

20 Questions 1: Understand Historical Sources 5 marks Approx min. on exam Always 1a & 1b 1a: Reading comp – 3 marks  give 3 facts/example 1b: 2 messages or meanings of a photo or cartoon (but not always) – 2 marks  2 meanings

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22 Question 2: Compare and Contrast Historical Sources as Evidence 6 Marks – 3 compare, 3 contrast Approx. 15 min. on exam Very often = a primary vs. a secondary/historiography source 1-2 paragraphs that include a running comparison/ contrast of the two sources – Can be 1 long paragraph or 2 short paragraphs – Must include specific facts Your Must address comparisons and contrasts IN RELATION TO THE QUESTION! Ex: "The sources contrast in While Source __ conveys , Source __ suggests "

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24 Question 3: Explain the Importance and Limitations of the Source (O-P-V-L) 6 Marks – O&P x 2, V x 2, L x 2 Approx. 15 min. on exam O-P-V-L as part of annotations – Convert into narrative form Narrative form: – Origin should reference 5W+H – Purpose = in relation to the task – Be explicit about Value and Limitations Evaluate the sources separately In narrative form (2 paragraphs, not bulleted lists) Ex. "The origin of this source is (what, who, when, where - take from the source details) The purpose of this source was (why it was made, for whom). The source is valuable because (refer to origin). The source is also valuable because (refer to purpose). The source is limited because (refer to origin). The source is also limited because (refer to purpose)."

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26 Common Limitations… Subjective (Emotionally Laden) Evidence: Language, Tone, Style Public vs. Private Proximity to Event Selective use of information Political Bias Historian - National/Social Influence/Bias General texts lack depth/detail Language Issues (access to foreign documents/ translation) Soviet Secrecy & Manipulation of Statistics Lack of access to Communist Archives (pre-1991 USSR) Face Saving Propaganda Exaggeration Motivation for?

27 Question 4… 3 arguments  agree, disagree, both Format: – Intro + Thesis – Body 1: Answer the question using strongest argument, document support, outside info & historiography – Body 2: Present the other side of the argument, use contrasting document support, outside info & historiography – Body 3: A balanced response to the essay question…still using document support, outside info & historiography 8 Marks 20+ minutes

28 Question 4 in General Use key information identified in initial read through of documents (this is why we annotate) What outside information (facts) can you add? – Includes historiography Develop 2-3 arguments that can be made based on the document evidence Write a brief essay outline (2-3 minutes) Q4 is a mini-essay

29 Using these sources and your own knowledge, explain to what extent you agree with the verdict of Source D, “the purges were successful in eliminating possible alternative leaders and terrorizing the masses into obedience, but the consequences were serious”


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