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The Presidency. President and Vice President  Presidents have enormous power and responsibility in government  Presidential Responsibilities ◦ Make.

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Presentation on theme: "The Presidency. President and Vice President  Presidents have enormous power and responsibility in government  Presidential Responsibilities ◦ Make."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Presidency

2 President and Vice President

3  Presidents have enormous power and responsibility in government  Presidential Responsibilities ◦ Make sure national laws are fully executed. ◦ Serve as commander in chief of the armed forces. ◦ Appoint top officials, federal judges, and ambassadors to meet with foreign governments.

4  The 22 nd Amendment ◦ George Washington set a long-held precedent that the president would serve only two terms. ◦ Franklin Roosevelt was elected four times. ◦ The 22 nd Amendment limited the president to two terms.  Salary and Benefits ◦ Congress determines the President’s salary. ◦ The president has been paid $400,000 since ◦ The President is also provided with a $100,000 non- taxable travel allowance, the use of a helicopter, airplane, limousines and a 132 room mansion. ◦ He or she also receive free health care and a pension.

5  Constitutional Requirements ◦ A candidate must be a natural-born citizen. ◦ Must be 35 year of age ◦ Must be a resident of the United States for 14 years. ◦ The same requirements apply to the vice president.  Government Experience ◦ Candidates who served as US Senators or state governors are most likely to win. ◦ A political career provides the opportunity to form alliances needed to obtain a party's nominate as well as the name recognition necessary to win votes.

6  Importance of Money ◦ Candidates for office must have access to sources for raising large amounts of money in the presidential election campaign. ◦ There are caps on the amount of money that can be spent during a candidate's run for president.  $33.78 million in the primaries  $67.56 million in the general election ◦ This money is used to pay for television ads, hiring campaign staff and consultants, and sending out mailings.

7  Political Beliefs ◦ Successful presidential candidates usually hold moderate political beliefs. ◦ This allows them to reach the greatest number of potential voters.  Personal Characteristics ◦ Presidents generally have been white, married, Protestant, financially successful men. ◦ No women nor any person of Hispanic or Asian ancestry has been elected president.  Personal Growth ◦ “To be President of the United States is to be lonely, very lonely at times of great decision.” Harry Truman ◦ The presidency reveals strengths and weaknesses.

8  The 25 th Amendment established the order of succession to the presidency. ◦ Vice President ◦ Speaker of the House ◦ President Pro Tempore of the Senate ◦ Secretary of State ◦ Other cabinet member  The 25 th Amendment also spells out what happens when the vice presidency is vacant.

9  The vice president’s work depends on what jobs, if any, the president assigns.  Although presidents before Eisenhower generally ignored their vice presidents, presidents since then have tried to give their vice presidents more responsibility.  They are involved in diplomatic activities such as representing the president overseas.

10 Electing the President

11  Article II, Section 1 of the Constitution provided that the candidate receiving a majority of the electoral votes became the president.  Each state would have as many electors as it had senators and Representatives in Congress. ◦ Elector: member of a party chosen in each state to formally elect a president and vice president.  The Candidate with the second-highest number of votes became vice president.

12  The election of 1800 was decided by the House of Representatives who voted Thomas Jefferson ahead of Aaron Burr.  To prevent a tie vote for president in the Electoral College, the 12 th Amendment provided that electors must cast separate ballots for president and vice president.

13  The Electoral College is still used to choose the president and vice president.  The College uses a winner take all system. ◦ All of a state’s (except Maine and Nebraska) electoral votes go to the candidate receiving the largest popular vote.  The Electoral College vote is cast in December.

14  Winner Take All ◦ The Electoral College system today makes it possible for a candidate who loses the total popular vote to win the electoral vote.  Third Party Candidates ◦ A third-party candidate could win enough electoral votes to prevent either major party candidate from receiving a majority in Electoral College.

15  Election by the House ◦ When the House of Representatives must decide a presidential election, each state casts one vote. ◦ The House may face several serious problems:  States with small populations have as much weight as states with larger populations.  Under the rules, if a majority of representatives from a state cannot agree on a candidate, the state loses its vote.  If some members of the House favor a strong third- party candidate, it could be difficult for any candidate to get the 26 votes needed to win.

16  Ideas for Reform ◦ Electoral votes by district rather than by state.  Two statewide electoral votes would go to the candidate carrying the most districts. ◦ Candidates receive percentage of Electoral vote based on popular vote in the state.  Direct popular Election ◦ Critics argue the Electoral College should be replaced with direct election of the president and vice president.

17  The new president is sworn into office in an inauguration ceremony.  All leading officials from the three branches of government attend the January Ceremony.

18 The Cabinet

19  Cabinet: secretaries of the executive departments, the vice president, and other top offices that help the president make decisions and policy  Secretaries should have some credible expertise in the policy areas their department will manage.  They should provide geographic balance as well as racial and gender representation.

20  Major Factors in Making Appointments: ◦ Do the members’ backgrounds suit their cabinet post? ◦ Do they bring geographical balance to the cabinet? ◦ Do they satisfy interest groups? ◦ Do they have high level administrative skills? ◦ Are ethnic and racial minorities and women included in the group?

21  Background of Cabinet Members ◦ Cabinet members today are usually college graduates and leaders in various professional fields. ◦ Cabinet secretaries earn $161,200 annually. ◦ Many could make more money in the business world but take Cabinet positions anyway.  Nominations and Confirmations ◦ The Senate must approve cabinet appointees, and it usually does so out of courtesy to the president. ◦ The nominee appears before the Senate committee that oversees the department to answer questions about his or her background and views.

22  As individuals, cabinet members are responsible for the executive departments they head.  As a group, the cabinet is intended to serve as an advisory board to the president.  The cabinet meets when the president calls it together.  Meeting occur in the cabinet room of the White House and are usually closed to the public and the press.

23  The Cabinet in History ◦ The cabinet’s role in government depends on what each presidents wants. ◦ Stronger presidents such as Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, and FDR have paid the cabinet less attention.  The Modern Cabinet ◦ Several recent presidents have attempted to increase the role of the cabinet. ◦ Most end up using other sources for advice. ◦ Bush and Clinton have used their cabinets as sounding boards rather than advisors.

24  The Influence of Cabinet Members ◦ Some cabinet members who work closely with the president wield influence because they head departments that are concerned with national issues. ◦ The secretaries of state, defense, and treasury, plus the attorney general form the “inner cabinet” and influence the president’s decisions on matters related to their department’s area of interest.

25  Conflicting Loyalties ◦ The president does not command full loyalty of cabinet members. ◦ Cabinet members are pressured by career officials in their departments, interest groups, and members of Congress. ◦ This pressure may result in disagreements within the cabinet over the president’s policies and plans.

26  Secrecy and Trust ◦ With 14 cabinet members, it is difficult to maintain secrecy in matters the president considers sensitive. ◦ The president may not know and trust all the members of the cabinet because the president must weigh so many factors in appointing them.

27 The Executive Office

28  The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created by Congress in  The EOP consists of individuals and agencies that directly assist the president.  The EOP was the result of FDR’s attempts to add government programs in order to make the government more efficient

29  Organization and Growth ◦ Today the EOP consists of the White House Office and several specialized agencies that report to the president. ◦ The EOP has grown rapidly for three reasons:  Presidents adding new agencies to it as problems arise.  Presidents want experts nearby to advise them about complex issues.  Federal programs sometimes require special staff to coordinate the efforts of several executive departments and other agencies working together.

30  The Office of Management and Budget ◦ Largest agency in the EOP ◦ Prepares the national budget that the president submits to Congress each year. ◦ Review all legislative proposals that executive agencies prepare in a process called central clearance  The National Security Council ◦ Advises the president and helps coordinate the nation’s military foreign policy ◦ Headed by the president but also includes the vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of state.

31  The National Homeland Security Council ◦ Created in 2001 following the terrorists attacks of 9/11. ◦ Responsible for developing a national strategy to protect the US from future terrorist attacks.  The Council of Economic Advisers ◦ Helps the president formulate the nation’s economic policy.

32  Other EOP Agencies ◦ Presidents add and sometimes eliminate agencies to the EOP to help carry out policy. ◦ Domestic Policy Council ◦ National Economic Council ◦ Office of Environmental Policy ◦ Environmental Protection Agency ◦ Office of Science and Technology Policy

33  Early presidents had little help with everyday activities. ◦ Washington hired his nephew at his own expense. ◦ Cleveland and McKinley personally answered phone calls to the White House. ◦ A 1937 study determined that the president required a personal staff.  The president appoints White House staff without Senate confirmation.

34  Organization and Growth ◦ The White House Office has become the most important part of the Executive Office of the President. ◦ Key aides are usually longtime personal supporters of the president. ◦ The White House Office grew from about 50 people under Roosevelt to nearly 600 people under Nixon. ◦ Staff size has dropped during the last 3 decades.

35  Duties of the White House Office ◦ The White House staff perform whatever duties the president assigns them. ◦ Duties could include:  Gathering information and providing advice on key issues  Ensuring that executive departments and agencies carry out key directions from the president  Presenting the president’s views to the outside world  Deciding who and what information gets through to the president

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