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Afghanistan Crystal Mancilla Michelle Martinez. Brezhnev’s Foreign Problems.

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Presentation on theme: "Afghanistan Crystal Mancilla Michelle Martinez. Brezhnev’s Foreign Problems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Afghanistan Crystal Mancilla Michelle Martinez

2 Brezhnev’s Foreign Problems

3 Brezhnev’s Doctrine (November 1968) ❖ The Soviet Union wanted to come to an agreement on arms limitation with the USA to prevent war ❖ Czechoslovak government introduced reforms that went against the communist regime ❖ Brezhnev stated that all communist regimes were to remain communist and he would not let them be overthrown internally nor externally

4 Agreement with the USA ❖ The USA and the USSR wanted to avoid nuclear war ❖ In May 1972 the USA and the USSR came to an agreement on arm limitations ❖ The Helsinki Final Act in 1975 finalised the post-war frontiers in Central and Eastern Europe ❖ Soviets agreed to comply with international conventions on human rights

5 Involvement in Africa and the Solidarity Movement ❖ The Portuguese withdrew from their African colonies after the Portuguese revolution in 1974 ❖ Marxists groups first recruited the assistance of the Cubans and then the Soviets ❖ The Soviets put an end to regime of Haile Selassie in Ethiopia and put in place a communist revolutionary government

6 Involvement in Africa and the Solidarity Movement (Cont.) ❖ The Solidarity movement started in the late 1970s in Poland ❖ The USSR wanted to invoke the Brezhnev Doctrine however due to its involvement in Afghanistan it was reluctant to do so

7 The USSR’s involvement in Afghanistan ❖ The USSR wanted to compete with Britain for power in Afghanistan ❖ The USSR military had trained Afghan officers which made them supportive of the Marxist cause in their own country ❖ The Afghan army took power in 1978 and killed the president and prime minister ❖ Nur Muhammad Taraki became the president of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA) and was put into power the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA)

8 The USSR’s involvement in Afghanistan (Cont.) ❖ The USSR signed an agreement with Afghanistan in December 1978 ❖ The Afghan government became more reliant on Soviet support which weakened the moral authority of the government ❖ The Mujahideen (rebel forces) started to object to the PDPA and the role of religious bodies in Afghanistan was starting to become more important

9 The USSR’s involvement in Afghanistan (Cont.) ❖ In 1979 Taraki was overthrown by Hafizullah Amin ❖ The USSR invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 ❖ Within the Soviet government there were disputes on why to proceed and how to proceed ❖ The KGB seemed to want a limited operation which would stabilize the situation and prevent it from spreading into surrounding countries ❖ The defence ministry wanted to overthrow the PDPA to prevent Pakistan or Iran from invading Afghanistan ❖ The Soviet army executed Amin and all those who saw the assassination

10 The USSR’s involvement in Afghanistan (Cont.) ❖ This was the start of a ten year intervention in Afghanistan which cost the USSR many lives and billions of dollars ❖ The US limited grain sales to the USSR and also boycotted the 1980 summer Olympics which were due to be held in Moscow ❖ The rebels received the support from the US and President Carter allowed the CIA to conduct operations in Afghanistan

11 ❖ By 1982 the USSR realized that it could not win the war in Afghanistan but refused to admit defeat ❖ Instead it continued a war that was costly and very unpopular as it had invoked the Brezhnev Doctrine and could not withdraw The USSR’s involvement in Afghanistan (Cont.)

12 Youtube Video

13 OPVL- Student Activity The authorization to invade Afghanistan, December 12, 1979. The Soviet leadership was so anxious about maintaining secrecy that they hand-wrote the document and circulated to individual Kremlin leaders for their signatures, which appear diagonally across the page. [Source: Fond-89]

14 OPVL ❖ Origin: Primary, December 12, 1979. ❖ Purpose: To give the authorization to invade Afghanistan ➢ Hand-written → To keep secrecy ❖ Value: Official view of the Soviet Leadership ❖ Limitation: Translation: Russian → English

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