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Introduction to the Oslo Manual: main definitions (Part II) Introduction to the Oslo Manual: main definitions (Part II) ECO - UIS Regional Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Indicators Tehran, Iran 8-10 December 2013 Luciana Marins, UIS
Innovation activities (1) Innovation activities: all scientific, technological, organisational, financial and commercial steps which (intended to) lead to the implementation of innovations; Some innovation activities are themselves innovative, others are not novel but necessary; R&D not directly related to the development of a specific innovation.
Innovation activities (2) For product and process innovations: Intramural (in-house) R&D; Acquisition of (extramural) R&D; Acquisition of other external knowledge; Acquisition of machinery, equipment and other capital goods; Other preparations for product and process innovations; Market preparations for product innovations; Training.
Innovation activities (3) Preparations for marketing innovations: Activities related to the development and implementation of new marketing methods; It includes acquisition of other external knowledge and of machinery, equipment, and other capital goods and training; Expenditures for using these methods in daily business are NOT included.
Innovation activities (4) Preparations for organisational innovations: Activities undertaken for the planning and implementation of new organisation methods; It includes acquisition of other external knowledge and of machinery, equipment, and other capital goods and training.
Kinds of innovation activities Successful - resulted in the implementation of a new innovation (not necessarily commercially successful); Ongoing - work in progress, which has not yet resulted in the implementation of an innovation; Abandoned - before the implementation of an innovation.
Example - innovation activities and expenditures for product and process innovations
Classifying firms by degree of innovativeness Innovative firm: Implemented an innovation; Not necessarily a commercial success; Innovators; Innovation-active firm: Had innovation activities, including ongoing or abandoned; Regardless of implementation; Potentially innovative firm: Innovation efforts but no achieved results; Key element for innovation policy; (Annex).
Innovators & innovation-active firms - P PP Product innovators: Firms 1, 3 & 4; - P PP Process innovators: Firms 2, 3 & 4; - B BB Both product and process innovators: Firms 3 & 4; - F FF Firms with abandoned or ongoing activities: Firms 4 & 5; - F FF Firms with abandoned or ongoing activities only: Firm 5; - P PP Product and process innovation-active firms: Firms 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5; - P PP Product or process non-innovative firms: Firm 6. InnovationFirm1Firm 2Firm 3Firm 4Firm5 6 Product innovation XXX Process innovation XXX Abandoned or ongoing activities XX
Factors influencing innovation Objectives: Motives for innovating; Effects: Observed outcomes of innovations (Table 9) ; Impacts on firm performance; Time lag; Hampering factors: Reasons for not starting innovation activities at all; Factors that slow innovation activity or have a negative effect on expected results.
Linkages Linkages: connections with other agents; Source, cost, level of interaction; Types of external linkages: Open information sources; Acquisition of knowledge and technology; Innovation co-operation.
Sources for transfers of knowledge and technology Open information sources Sources for purchases of knowledge & technology Co- operation partners Internal sources within the enterprise: R&D / Production / Marketing / Distribution * Other enterprises within the enterprise group *** External market and commercial sources: Competitors Other enterprises in the industry Clients or customers Consultants / consultancy firms Suppliers Commercial laboratories ********** ********** ************ Public sector sources: Universities and other higher education institutions Government / public research institutes Private non profit research institutes Specialised (semi) public innovation support services ******** ******** ******** General information sources: Patent disclosures / Professional conferences, meetings, literature and journals / Fairs and exhibitions / Professional associations, trade unions / Other local associations / Informal contacts or networks / Standards or standardisation agencies / Public regulations *
Example - co-operation
Example - hampering factors
Appropriability Ability of enterprises to appropriate gains from innovation activities: Formal methods: patents, registration of design, trademarks, copyrights, confidentiality agreements, trade secrecy; Informal methods: secrecy that is not covered by legal agreements, complexity of product design, lead time advantage over competitors.
Developing countries Developing countries 3 rd ed. OM standards, adaptations; LA: the Bogota Manual (RICYT, 2001); UIS: Annex (A) to 3 rd ed. OM; Innovation Surveys in Developing Countries.
Characteristics of innovation in developing countries Size and structure; Instability; Informality; Particular economic and innovation environments; Reduced innovation decision-making powers; Weak innovation systems; Characteristics of innovation.
Characteristics of innovation in developing countries Potentially innovative firm; Measurement priorities - why / what / how: Innovation capabilities (HR, Linkages, ICTs); Expenditure on innovation activities; Organisational innovation.
Adaptations ICTs in innovation surveys; Linkages: Agents + Types + Location; Innovation Activities: Hardware purchase and Software purchase (split); Industrial design and Engineering activities (split); Lease or rental of machinery, equipment and other capital goods; In-house software system development; Reverse engineering; Human resources and training.
Methodological issues for developing country contexts Weakness of statistical systems; Questionnaire design; Survey application; Frequency; Publication; Difficulties… Lack of appreciation of the importance of innovation; Managers are secretive about finance; Lack of adequate legislative base. Will be discussed later